Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Neisseria Meningitides Isolates from Asymptomatic Carriers in Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia
American Journal of Health Research
Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages: 12-18
Received: Mar. 13, 2019;
Accepted: Apr. 13, 2019;
Published: May 30, 2019
Views 437 Downloads 72
Fikerte Mulatu, International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Zelalem Mekonnen, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Biruk Yeshitela, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Hiwot Tilahun, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Melaku Yidnekachew, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Marechign Yimer, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tsehaynesh Lema, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitation Training (ALERT) Centerh Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Wude Mhiret, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Kassu Desta, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Oumer Ali, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Adane Mihret, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Follow on us
Neisseria meningitides represents a pathogen of great public health importance in both developed and developing countries. Resistance to some antimicrobial agents used either for therapy of invasive infections or for prophylaxis of case contacts has long been recognized. However, there is no data in relation with the circulating serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Neisseria meningitides in Ethiopia. Therefore; the aim of this study was to assess drug susceptibility patterns of Neisseria meningitides from asymptomatic carrier for all age group at Meskan and Mareko Districts, Gurage Zone, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State Ethiopia. A Cross-sectional survey of an age-stratified population in Meskan and Mareko Districts, Gurage Zone, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State in Ethiopia was conducted at AHRI as part of the MenAfricar project. A total of 4110 subjects were screened and from these 187 Neisseria meningitides positive isolates was selected for Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on stored Neisseria meningitides isolates. The activities of ten antimicrobial agents used for treatment and prophylaxis of meningococcal disease were investigated. The AST was performed for Neisseria meningitides isolates according to the criteria of the CLSI guide line by disk diffusion method. Data were analysed by using SPSS version 20.0 software. From 187 isolates 8(4.28%) were serogroup X, 24(12.83%) were serogroup Y, 1(0.53%) were serogroup W135, and 154(82.35%) were non determinant (ND). Cotrimoxazol resistant were the highest accounting116(62%), Ciprofloxacine resistant were 112(60%), Cefotaxime resistant were 26(14%), Ceftriaxone resistant were 24(13%), Meropenenem resistantwere 21(11%), Minocycline resistant were 15(8%), Rifampine resistant were 149(7%), 10(5%) were resistant to Azithromycine, 7(4%) were resistant to Chloramphenicol and 6(3%) were resistant to Levofloxacin and 102(54.5%) isolates were resistance for more than one drug. So, it has beenconcluded that an antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria meningitides among asymptomatic carriers is high and continued surveillance of meningococci for antimicrobial resistance is necessary to monitor early detection of changes in susceptibility patterns that might affect recommendations for chemoprophylaxis and treatment.
Neisseria Meningitides, Serogroups, Sensitivity Pattern, Drug Resista
To cite this article
Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Neisseria Meningitides Isolates from Asymptomatic Carriers in Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia, American Journal of Health Research.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 12-18.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Gazi H., Surucuoglu S., Ozbakkaloglu B., Akcali S., Ozkutuk N., Degerli K. et al. "Oropharyngeal carriage and penicillin resistance of Neisseria meningitides in primary school children in Manisa, Turkey." Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004; 33(6): 758-62.
Stephens David S., Brian Greenwood, and Petter Brandtzaeg. "Epidemic meningitis, meningococcaemia, and Neisseria meningitides." The Lancet. 2007; 369.9580: 2196-2210.
Caugant DA, Maiden MC. Meningococcal carriage and disease—population biology and evolution. Vaccine. 2009;27: B64-70.
Harcourt BH, Anderson RD, Wu HM, Cohn AC, Mac Neil JR, Taylor TH, Wang X, Clark TA, Messonnier NE, Mayer LW. Population-based surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis antimicrobial resistance in the United States. In Open forum infectious diseases. Oxford University Press.2015;2(3):117.
Hedberg S. T., Fredlund H., Nicolas P., Caugant D. A., Olcén P., &Unemo M. "Antibiotic susceptibility and characteristics of Neisseria meningitides isolates from the African meningitis belt, 2000 to 2006: phenotypic and genotypic perspectives." Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2009; 53(4): 1561-1566.
Arreaza L., de La Fuente L., & Vázquez J. A."Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Neisseria meningitides Isolates from Patients and Asymptomatic Carriers." Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2000; 44(6): 1705-1707.
CLSI: Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; twenty-fourth information supplement. CLSI document M100-S24. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2016.
Jorgensen, James H., Sharon A. Crawford, and Kristin R. Fiebelkorn. "Susceptibility of Neisseria meningitides to 16 antimicrobial agents and characterization of resistance mechanisms affecting some agents." Journal of clinical microbiology. 2005; 43(7): 3162-3171.
Thulin Hedberg S. "Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance in Neisseria meningitides: phenotypic and genotypic characteristics." 2009.
Bårnes GK, Kristiansen PA, Beyene D, Workalemahu B, Fissiha P, Merdekios B, Bohlin J, Préziosi MP, Aseffa A, Caugant DA. Prevalence and epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in Southern Ethiopia prior to implementation of MenAfriVac, a conjugate vaccine. BMC infectious diseases. 2016; 16(1):639.
Kristiansen PA, Ba AK, Ouédraogo AS, Sanou I, Ouédraogo R, Sangaré L, Diomandé F, Kandolo D, Saga IM, Misegades L, Clark TA. Persistent low carriage of serogroup A Neisseria meningitides two years after mass vaccination with the meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac. BMC infectious diseases. 2014; 14(1):663.
Stephens DS. Conquering the meningococcus. FEMS microbiology reviews. 2007; 31 (1): 3-14.
Ercis S, Köseoğlu O, Salmanzadeh-Ahrabi S, Ercis M, Akin L, Hasçelik C. The prevalence of nasopharyngeal Neisseria meningitidis carriage, serogroup distribution, and antibiotic resistance among healthy children in Cankaya municipality schools of Ankara province. Mikrobiyolojibulteni. 2005; 39(4):411-20.
Pavlopoulou ID, Daikos GL, Alexandrou H, Petridou E, Pangalis A, Theodoridou M, Syriopoulou VP. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis by Greek children: risk factors and strain characteristics. Clinical microbiology and infection. 2004; 10 (2):137-42.
Assefa A., Gelaw B., Shiferaw Y., &Tigabu Z. "Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Potential Pathogenic Bacteria among Paediatrics Outpatients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia." J Infect Dis Ther. 2013; 1.109: 2332-0877.
Tentera, A. Serogroups and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Neisseria meningitides isolated from army recruits in a training camp. Malaysian J Pathol. 2007; 29(2): 91 – 94.
Manchanda V, Gupta S, Bhalla P. Meningococcal disease: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevention. Indian journal of medical microbiology. 2006; 24(1):7.