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Iodine is an element and mineral, is an essential constituent of human diet. Iodine is also called “micronutrient” because its requirement is in very small amount by our body. Iodide is well absorbed from the intestine, is distributed like chloride in the body and is rapidly excreted by the kidney. Lack of iodine results in deficiency of thyroid hormones and a wide spectrum of disorders, collectively called iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Thyroid hormones are essential for normal growth, development and functioning of both the brain and body.
The most sensitive method for evaluation of IDD control program is the determination of urinary iodine excretion. This is due to the effective clearance of this element by the kidneys regardless of other confounding factors. The urinary iodine excretion in a casual sample is a valuable index for evaluating the iodine supply of population. According to the WHO reports, more than 800 million individuals in the world are suffering from iodine deficiency (WHO, 2000). In Sudan, it is estimated that about 14 million inhabitants are at risk of iodine deficiency
Thyroid gland disorders are common worldwide problems. Shendi province is not an exception regarding this problem, furthermore it is observed that most of the patients with thyroid disorders presented to Shendi hospitals from certain areas. This observation draws our attention and interest to conduct a study on these disorders in relation to iodine status.
The study is aims to determine the incidence of iodine deficiency disorder among the basic schools’ children in Shendi city and role of water supplements to iodine intake by inhabitants in the study area.
Iodine deficiency had high effect on the schoolchildren performance, which was reflected in most of goitrous cases (53.7%) with low intelligence level. Most of schoolchildren (68.6%) had normal urinary iodine excretion, (10 - 30 μg/dl), 23.5% were suffering from iodine deficiency and 7.9% had urinary iodine excretion more 30 μg/dl. East Shendi showed the highest value (23.40μg/dl) and the lowest values were observed in north Shendi (13.86μg/dl). Some goitrogenic minerals and anions (such as F- , Ca2+ and NO3-) were found in the water sources of the study area. Moreover of Shendi population did not consume the iodized salt.
FarougBakheit Mohamed Ahmed, Departmentof Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Shendi University, Shendi, Sudan
Esam-eddinBakheit Mohamed Ahmed, Departmentof ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Shendi University, Shendi, Sudan