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One of the most readily available and economical sources of energy is fossil fuels. While abundant and inexpensive, fossil fuels are a finite source of energy that some estimates state will last only 40 more years. In addition, combustion of fossil fuels produces harmful pollutants that are exhausted into the Atmosphere.
In a recent paper by Author Dr. Ghada Kadry, Jatropha oil extraction was performed from Jatropha seeds where the kinetic and thermodynamic of extraction process is studied then the oil was used as feed stock for biodiesel production by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis.
The Jatropha biodiesel blends with 10,15and 25% with diesel petroleum In the paper Kadry Shows Jatropha oil extraction was performed from Jatropha seeds using n-hexane, Isopropanol and petroleum ether with volume/weight ratio 6:1 at temp. 68°,50°and 25°c. over 2 hr.
The highest oil yield was obtained in the extraction procedure with n-hexane with particle size 0.5 cm at 68° for 2 hr. The extraction process was observed with regard to the percent oil yield versus time and the order was found to be first order kinetics using soxhlet extractor for 60 minutes. The thermodynamics parameter were calculated to indicated that the process is endothermic, non spontaneous and irreversible process, while at temperature less than 60°C the reaction is reversible.
Jatropha oil was used as feed stock for biodiesel production by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. The optimum condition for Jatropha biodiesel production were a methanol: oil molar ratio 10:1, a catalyst concentration of 1% w/w of oil , a reaction temperature of 60°c , and a reaction time 60 min. the methyl ester content under these optimum condition was 93% w/w. The Jatropha biodiesel blends with 10, 15 and 25% with diesel petroleum fuel and the thermophysical properties were studied. All of the measured properties of the Jatropha oil and biodiesel are determined by international standards ASTM 6751-07b, with the exception of lower oxidation stability.
The biodiesel is used as a fuel in the form a blend with the diesel fuel (fossil fuel) .the biodiesel can be blended in any percentage. Biodiesel blends 10,15 and 25%.
In comparison between biodiesel and diesel the specific gravity reduced after transesterification , viscosity from 71 to 36 cp than increase slightly with blend with diesel. which is important character for engine operation (viscous fuel makes the engine life longer)
Flash point is important temperature specified for safety during transport, storage and handling. Flash point of jatropha biodiesel was found to be 162°c , flash point of jatropha oil decrease after transesterification and blends show that its volatile characteristics had improved and it is also safe to handle where it reach 61°c with 10%blend and increase for 15 % blend and 25% blend. fuels with flash point above 67°c are considered as safe fuel. the pour point for jatropha oil is 6°c but for biodiesel it is 0°c and for blends become -3°c . In general high pour point often limits their use as fuel for diesel engine in cold climatic conditions. when the ambient temperature is below the pour point the oil wax precipitate i oil and they loose their flow characteristics, wax can block the filters and fuel supply line under these conditions fuel cannot be pumped through the injector. In Egypt , ambient temperature are higher than pour point of jatropha oil and biodiesel also blends. The most important character of fuel is calorific value (CV) a very successful results are obtained where CV of biodiesel ꞊37.2J/kg while CV of diesel꞊42.6 J/kg and it is increased by blending up to 45 J/kg.
Dr. Ghada Ahmed Kadry
Chemical Engineering Department, High Institute of Engineering, El-Shorouk Academy, Cairo, Egypt
A paper about production of biodiesel