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Those animals and plants that can survive and produce offspring at the junction of three climatic zones are the healthiest food for humans. Primorsky Krai, Russia, is one of the two places in the northern hemisphere, which are situated at the junction of three climatic zones: boreal, sub-tropical, and maritime. The proximity to Siberia results in cold and windy winter, while the more southerly latitudes and the proximity to sea make summer hot and humid. The range of air temperature variations in Primorsky Krai during a year is more than 60°C. Therefore, animals and plants inhabiting this region produce special substances that allow them to survive adverse conditions. Local residents can strengthen their immunity by consuming local food that also facilitates their existence under these variable climatic conditions. According to the folk medicine, juice of local cranberries helps cure cancer. People eating only local plants—garlic, onion, or, when being in a forest, fruits of wild plants—can get rid of this “incurable” disease within a few months. Barefoot trampling a bag stuffed with leaves of local birch during a long time helps get rid of children’s cerebral palsy. Among plants, roots of ginseng, eleuthero, magnolia-vine, golden root (Rhodiola rosea), and dandelion are used most frequently for manufacturing medicines. Among marine organisms, Japanese kelp Saccharina and Japanese sea cucumber are widely used in medicine.
Our publication is dedicated to testing the technology of forced cultivation of valuable kelp Saccharina japonica, developed in China and Japan, and its adaptation to the climatic conditions of Russia’s Primorsky Krai. As it was found in the process of cultivation of this valuable alga, seedlings get diseased in pools, and 50–75% of them die before the transplantation of sporophytes in the sea. In waters with natural beds of this alga, the abundance of phytophagous organisms, represented by several species of swimming crustaceans of the Amphipoda group, is very high. During adaptation of the seedlings grown in the pools to marine life, amphipods can destroy up to 30% of young sporophytes. Thus, when the mortality of young sporophytes in the basins reaches 75%, herbivores eat up the rest of the seedlings. In these circumstances, obtaining the market size product can be possible only in case the seedlings are transplanted in the waters with no natural beds of kelp and herbivores feeding on it. Our experiments have shown that an increase in illumination of the water in the pools to 8,000 lux allows reduction of the concentration of the erythromycin antibiotic added to the water by an order of magnitude and achieving the 100 percent survival of seedlings in spite of the high temperature of the water in the basins. By rejecting “adaptation” of seedlings in the sea, the survival rate of transplanted sporophytes was increased that resulted in a higher productivity of sea-based plantations. In Primorsky Krai, sporophytes on sea-based plantations can reach the market size within a year. However, due to their higher stocking density, as compared to that used in other countries, their thallus becomes insufficiently rigid to be wholly processed by the cutting machine. Its thin edges are discarded. To increase both the rigidity of thallus and the yield of final product, sporophytes are left in the sea for another year.
Dr D. D. Gabaev, The scientific employee, S. M. Dimitriev, Senior Engineer, Academy of Sciences, A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian. A paper about the study appeared recently in International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nairobi, Kenya
A paper about the study appeared recently in American Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems.