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Ethiopia has made tremendous progress toward universal water, sanitation and hygiene access in the past decade, but still significant challenges remains unaddressed which vary from place to place.The pictures below show the type of water used in Ethiopia for drinking and other domestic activities.
By Nancy Platt and Pam Furniss, 2015,from hygiene and environmental health part two, Blended Learning Modules for the Ethiopian Health Extension Programme.
In recent paper by authors Mr. WorkuDugassa, Mr. AbebeMegerso, Mr. DesalegnArarso, and Mr. Sultan Kalu, the status of water supply, sanitation and hygiene of households in the Welenchititown were evaluated. The study subjects were randomly selected households by systematic random sampling.
In the paper they showed that, the average water consumption of households in this study area was lower than the WHO guidelines, which stated that the per capita water consumption should be at least 20 liters per day for developing countries including Ethiopia.The reasons may be scarcity or inadequate water supply sources and walking distances might explain lesser amount of water consumption per capita per day. Diarrhea disease was a health problem in the study area. Households who got less than 20 liters of water per person per day had diarrhea almost two times more than households who got greater than 20 liters of water per person per day (AOR=2.51, 95% CI=1.07-5.87, P=0.03).
Washing of hand with soap after visiting toilet (or after defecation) has a paramount importance in decreasing of diarrheal and other parasitic diseases. They also revealed that, only 30% of the households with latrines washed their hands after defecation. The result was much lower than the growth and transformation plan or health sector transformation plan of Ethiopia (77%) which will be achieved in next five year (2020G.C.). This poor hand washing practices after toilet was significantly associated with diarrheal diseases (AOR=3.26, 95%, CI=1.35-7.91, P=0.03).
Many researchers have underlined the relationship between public health and improper solid waste management. They further indicated that majority (69.70%) of the households disposed their solid wastes in open dump outside the yard. This leads to a polluted environment and sources of communicable diseases.
They concluded that access to water, sanitation and hygiene is lower than that of required standard and thereforehealth-workers and local authorities must pay special emphasis to improve these conditions.
Worku Dugassa Girsha, lecturer of Public Health, Adama Hospital Medical College, Adama, EthiopiaAbebe Megerso Adlo, Assistant professor of Public Health, Adama Hospital Medical College, Adama, Ethiopia Sultan Kalu Beggi, Lecturers of Public Health, Adama Hospital Medical College, Adama, Ethiopia Desalegn Ararso Garoma, Technical Director of Technology Transfer and Research Translation Directorate-Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
A paper about the study appeared recently for Academic Research in Adama Hospital Medical College, Adama, Ethiopia