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The production of laser in the X-ray spectral region are of interest for both scientists and manufacturers . The specifications of X-ray laser are useful for many applications especially in the field of medicine metallurgy, and other applications. In the present study we provide in details the conditions and all required information to produce a powerful laser beam from the 22th ionization of tin.
The collisional pumping by electrons is one of the main two methods to produce X-ray laser. This method is depending on hiting target ions (in the present case the target is the Sn ion) by an accelerated electrons to excite the local electrons to upper states. The excited electrons to different excited levels have to decayed again to the ground state but this process not executed directly, it happen as a result of the stimulation process by a produced photon , figure 1. Normally the lower level population by electrons is higher than the upper levels so when an inverse operation occurred this leads to laser production.
Fig. 1 The stimulated emission
The active medium of laser here is the Sn ion and the laser gain is depending on the medium thickness, in medium like tin the saturation will occur at approximately 7mm.
The present study provide a promising results of positive laser gain from tin ion which emits in the X-ray spectral region. The maximum gain are recorded at the wavelength of 11.1 nm and its value is about 74.46 cm-1.
The other co-authors who involved in this work are: A.A. El-Maaref, E. Abdel-Wahab1, and S. Allam.
A paper about this study has been published in the American Journal of Optics and Photonics.