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Sodium nitrite are added to meats, poultry, and fish to delays the development of botulinum toxin, develops cured meat flavor and color, retards the development of rancidity during storage, inhibits the development of warmed-over flavor and preserves the flavors of spice and smoke. It may react with amines of the foods in the stomach and produces nitrosamines or large numbers of free radicals, which have many toxic effects including haematotoxicity, dyslipidemic and atherogenic effects. Propolis possesses several biological properties, such as antioxidant, haemtoprotective, antidysipidemic and antiatherogenic.
The present work aimed to evaluate ameliorating effect by aqueous extract of Libyan propolis in sodium nitrite induced haematotoxicity, hyperlipidemia, atherogenic effects in guinea pigs.
Guinea pigs that received sodium nitrite orally at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight daily for 35 days had significantly (p<0.05) lower RBCs, WBCs, and platelets counts, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, and MCHC than those in the control animals. On the other hand, mean corpuscular volume of sodium nitrite treated animals was significantly (p<0.05) elevated as compared to the control animals. The developed anaemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia may be referred to the toxic effect of sodium nitrite on bone marrow, spleen and liver. Biochemically, the serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, non HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol concentrations( Figure.1), and the atherogenic ratios based on lipid profile parameters ( cardiac risk ratio (Castelli's risk index I), Castelli's risk index II, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma) were increased and serum HDL-cholesterol concentration was decreased in sodium nitrite treated group.
Figure.1: Serum Lipids profile concentrations in different animals groups.
Co-administration of propolis significantly improved of all haematological, lipid profile parameters, and atherogenic ratios parameters. Phenolic antioxidants of propolis can trap initiating radicals and/or propagating peroxy radicals to break the peroxidation chain reaction to protect the cells from oxidation damage. Flavonoids reduce cholesterol biosynthesis by means of inhibition of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and acyl CoA: cholesterol o-acyltransferase (ACAT). The increase in HDL-C observed in the present study, might be due to stimulation of pre-β HDL-C and reverse cholesterol transport as demonstrated by previous studies . High HDL-C levels could potential contribute to its antiatherogenic properties, including its capacity to inhibit LDL oxidation and protect endothelial cells from the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL.
It is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite must be limited and use of propolis as antioxidant to prevent the haematotoxicity, dyslipidemia, and atherogenic effects.
Authors: Assistant Professor Azab Elsayed Azab, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alejelat, Zawia University, Libya.
Co-authors: Assistant Professor Nuri Mohamed Lashkham, Dean of Faculty of Medical Technology, Surman, and Assistant Professor Mohamed Omar Albasha, Head of Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alejelat, Zawia University, Libya.
A paper about the study appeared recently in American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering.