The science covers diferents areas of knowledge, being the nutrition recognized as an interdisciplinary and multifaceted field due to the various biological effects of the food components. It is essential to have an integrative view of the food, not only by the chemical aspect, for example, the influence of the processing and industrialization of the food over the biodisponibility of the nutritional compents, but also consider the humanistic aspect of the food, in its whole complexity, since the cultural aspects to the social, ideologic, religious, comportamental, economic and agronomic. All of these aspects are inside the expanded domain of the nutrition, and contribute to the determination of the process which the food and nutrients are brought to the individual´s table (Navia et al., 1995; Lobo, 2018).
The food constitute a primordial factor on the society routine, not just because of the human physiological needs, but especially, due to its aquisition became a public health problem, once the excess or the lack of it can lead to the development of diseases (Abreu et al., 2001).
According with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the food and nutrition are basics requeriments to the promotion of health, enabling the full affirmation of the potential of human growth and development with quality of life and citizenship. Thus, the challenges found to a population reach a suitable level of food and nutrition are countless. The complexity of food problems, such as the transition from the nutritional status of the population from malnutrition to obesity, is due to the nutritional transition, a phenomenon characterized by changes in the dietary pattern of a population (Castro, 2015).
Nowdays, populations suffer from multiple ways of undernutrition. The malnutrition still the most important cause of child mortality and it is estimated that more than two billions of people has micronutrient deficiency (WHO, 2014). At the same time, on the otherside of the food and nutritional insecurity , are the overweight and obesity, that have been growing globally. The overweight and obesity, beyond being a public health problem, represent a risk factors to the development of chronic diseases, representing a social, economic and health burden to the countries (Coutinho et al., 2015).
Thus, the greatest perspectives are directed towards the advance on actions of regulatory character about diferents elements of the food system, for example, regulation of advertisements, publicity and food labeling and regulation of the composition of ultraprocessed products. Simultaneously there´s a paradigm of the security and food insecurity whose are connected and associated with theories of ecological unsustainability of the planet (Vasconcelos, 2010; Castro, 2015).
However we´re living the growth of research with bioactive compounds, genetic polymorphism, epigenetic mechanisms, molecular targets, functional properties of the food and their possible applications in health and clinical practice. Besides that there´s the evolution and advances in software development and artificial intelligece with application on the nutrition science (Reis et al., 2018).
Martin Sobze Sanou,
Andre Izacar Gael Bita,
Ghyslaine Bruna Djeunang Dongho,
Benjamin Azike Chunkukundun,
Armand Tiotsa Tsapi,
Germaine Sylvie Nkengfack Nembongwe
Pages: 25-32 Published Online: Apr. 13, 2020
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