Currently, a city poses a number of challenges, connected with the need to designate the main activities' directions and indicate the desired change processes, to determine new forms for the city. Increasing population mobility, high-tech development, flexible form of work organization or space organization requirements of its users are only a few problems. The pace of development in scientific research, which results in technical innovations, affects the economy, way of life, and consequently the structure of cities and their space quality. The researchers claim that many variable and uncontrolled phenomena occur in cities, that force the search for instruments aimed at seeing the whole system. When considering urban development, adaptability and the ability to cope with emergencies, researchers mention, among others, urban resilience, defined as the system’s ability to recover the original attributes after the crisis. Economic urban resilience is connected with the city's ability to overcome socio-economic problems. In this regard, the city is also conceived as a comprehensive system with adaptive skills. Taking that into account, researchers compare spatial planning to the game of fighting against wicked problems. Its aim is to involve in actions and presenting views on the city space problems, not only urban planners, experts, officials and politicians, but also space users - ordinary citizens. In such approach, spatial planning should be considered in terms of a process geared towards action linked to social participation. It is part of a policy that realizes public and private interests, but also a way of resolving conflicts in the use of space.
Monitoring of changes, action programs, strategies and directions of spatial development, outlined within the local spatial policy, affect the urban space management. The responsible for decision-making in public affairs and implementation of the assumed objectives, including those on sustainable development, are: managing bodies, local authorities, planners, but also users of space. Efficient city management involves the supervision instruments and decision-making bodies. Effective city development policy considers the entire system and its interactions, and the principles are oriented in short and long term targets. The best results are achieved by the management system implemented at optimum scales, taking into account local conditions and backed by the idea of social participation.
The research shows that regardless of the country where the spatial policy is carried out, the assessment of spatial processes that result from zoning plans, enables their management and correction in case of missing the initial goals. The assessment may be carried out in different ways, using different criteria. However, the most common form is assessment of the objective achievement degree, as well as the effectiveness. It should be noted however, that some effects cannot be quantified. Measurable results of policy decisions are undoubtfully easy-to-refine. Unforeseen side effects and qualitative assessment of actions taken are far more difficult to be measured.
Space planning took on a new significance, since taking into consideration shaping the living conditions in the context of that process’s implications. Given the above, there is a need to develop tools to support activities that deliberately implement spatial policy objectives. The complexity of processes occurring in space, as well as the willingness to understand and describe them, result in the development of new research techniques.
The new approach towards thinking about city and planning its space entails consequences. The study of cities’ functionality is getting involved with the process of integrating scattered interdisciplinary databases. They provide information about the status and operation of a city system, based on qualitative and quantitative data. These procedures involve continuous observation and supervision. Such activities allow for monitoring of implementing spatial policy processes in terms of short and long term objectives. They can also help to initiate feedback processes related to possible adjustment of targets.
Sharif Tousif Hossain
Pages: 1-10 Published Online: Feb. 24, 2020
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