A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural-gas processing is a done with process designed to clean raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas.
Natural-gas processing plants purify raw natural gas by removing common contaminants such as water, carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Some of the substances which contaminate natural gas have economic value and are further processed or sold.
The different Gas Sweetening Processes to be applied depend on the quality and quantity of acid gas contaminants to be removed:
- CO2 when this is the sole contaminant of the gas
- H2S when this is the sole contaminant of the gas
- CO2 and H2S simultaneously
- Selective removal of H2S when both CO2 and H2S are present in the gas
- The existing processes are as follows:
- Chemical Absorption
- Physical Absorption
- Physico-chemical Absorption
- Physical Adsorption
- Cryogenic Fractionation
- Permeation (membrane)
- Direct conversion to sulfur
This special issue is to improve the dissemination of advanced research in the area of gas processing and gas sweetening that can fulfill the access of energy obtained from fossil fuel, especially natural gas.