Physics Department, Science Faculty, University of Duhok,
Sardar Pirkhider Yaba
Biophysics, Physics Department, College of Education, University of Salah,
Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was originally effective for treatment of infections caused by it. Resistant microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial drugs, so that standard treatments become ineffective and infections persist, increasing the risk of spread to others.
Many different bacteria now exhibit multi-drug resistance, including staphylococci, enterococci, gonococci, streptococci, salmonella, pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as numerous other gram negative bacteria. Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to almost all presently available antibiotics and this aspect is becoming a worldwide problem of highest significance and a challenging problem in infection control and poses serious threats. Among several strategies to minimize multiple resistances against a variety of antibiotics, electromagnetic fields (especially, extremely low) have attracted attention of many researchers to manifest their influence on the bacterial growth and its resistance. Although several studies have been done on the effects of magnetic fields, still there are conflicting views on the effect of the electromagnetic fields in the possibility of altering the bacterial resistance to antibiotics.