Physics Department, Science Faculty, University of Duhok,
Sardar Pirkhider Yaba
Biophysics, Physics Department, College of Education, University of Salah
Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Guidelines for Submission
Manuscripts can be submitted until the expiry of the deadline. Submissions must be previously unpublished and may not be under consideration elsewhere.
Papers should be formatted according to the guidelines for authors (see: http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/guideforauthors?journalid=117). By submitting your manuscripts to the special issue, you are acknowledging that you accept the rules established for publication of manuscripts, including agreement to pay the Article Processing Charges for the manuscripts. Manuscripts should be submitted electronically through the online manuscript submission system at http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/login. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal and will be listed together on the special issue website.
The special issue currently is open for paper submission. Potential authors are humbly requested to submit an electronic copy of their complete manuscript by clicking here.
Please download to know all details of the Special Issue
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was originally effective for treatment of infections caused by it. Resistant microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial drugs, so that standard treatments become ineffective and infections persist, increasing the risk of spread to others.
Many different bacteria now exhibit multi-drug resistance, including staphylococci, enterococci, gonococci, streptococci, salmonella, pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as numerous other gram negative bacteria. Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to almost all presently available antibiotics and this aspect is becoming a worldwide problem of highest significance and a challenging problem in infection control and poses serious threats. Among several strategies to minimize multiple resistances against a variety of antibiotics, electromagnetic fields (especially, extremely low) have attracted attention of many researchers to manifest their influence on the bacterial growth and its resistance. Although several studies have been done on the effects of magnetic fields, still there are conflicting views on the effect of the electromagnetic fields in the possibility of altering the bacterial resistance to antibiotics.