Various factors including genetic background, familial history cancer, race and ethnicity, smocking, alcohol consumption, relative body weight, lifestyle and environmental factors have been proposed as main contributors for cancer incidence. Dietary patterns and food components are considered as main modifiable risk factors for development of cancer. Several studies showed that dietary intake of macro and micronutrients as well as various food groups including fruits and vegetables, phytochemical-rich foods, dairy and meat products may be related to the risk of cancer. Protective effects of some dietary patterns such as prudent/healthy pattern, plant-based and Mediterranean diet, and some food groups such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish meat against the development of cancer has been reported. On the other hand, such dietary pattern including Western dietary pattern and higher consumption of processed foods, fast foods and unhealthy snacks, refined grains, saturated and trans fats have been known as risk for development of cancer. The proposed special issue "American Journal of Life Sciences" could be contains research articles as well as review articles regarding the diet, nutrition and food science and the risk of cancer.