School of Information and Communication Engineering, North University of China
Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
SUTD-MIT International Design Centre, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Pakistan
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA, USA
Although photonic is the best solution to overcome speed limitation in electronic devices, miniaturization of photonic devices is still one of the most challenging problems in photonic integrated circuits. Thank to the ability of plasmonics in confine of electromagnetic wave at the interface of some materials, they can overcome the diffraction limit for the miniaturization of photonic circuits. Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) can be created at the interface of those materials whose real part of their permittivity has different signs such as metal and dielectric. In line with the exclusive advantages of SPPs, they can confine light in the scale of sub-wavelength and guide it in long distances.
SPPs can be used in waveguides and huge variety of optical devices such as; optical switches, optical amplifiers, filters, resonators, sensors, solar cells, etc. in the range of Terahertz to optical frequencies. Graphene Plasmonic (GP) has recently been taken into consideration as a material which displays desirable features such as low loss, extreme confinement and high tunability. Accordingly, GPs paves a new way to develop plasmonic and nanophotonic devices.