Materials with negative permittivity and permeability were first studied by a Russian theorist Victor Veselago in 1968. He hypothesized that negative refraction can occur if both parameters are negative. So far a natural material that can achieve negative values for permittivity and permeability simultaneously has not been found or discovered. Therefore, it took 33 years to conﬁ rm his prediction by fabricating a metamaterial. It is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature. In 2000, Smith et al. fabricated a metamaterial with negative refractive index by combining two structures presented by Pendry in 1996 and 1999. Metallic nanorods responsible for the negative permittivity and split rings resonators responsible for the negative permeability. Low loss metamaterials with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability are desired for practical applications in many optical devices such as plasmonic antenna arrays, epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at visible wavelengths, modulators and switches, infrared perfect absorbers, photo detecting, electromagnetic energy conversion, and as perfect lens in imaging applications. Therefore, they have attracted much attention, among them; plasmonic metal-dielectric metamaterials have investigated extensively. Plasmonic metamaterials are typically composed of noble metals in which photonic and electronic properties are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal, known as surface plasmon. Noble metals are of particular interest because of their stability and reproducibility. The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of metallic nanostructures increase the interactions between photons and materials, which could be controlled by size, shape, and dielectric permittivity of the environment. Fabrication of metamaterials is generally difficult, however, there are some experimental methods including, template-assisted and self-assembled electrochemical deposition, conventional solution-based technique, electrochemical plating, nanolithography, stencil deposition techniques, etc.
Aims and Scope:
- Localized surface plasmon resonances
- Two-dimensional materials
- Metallic nano-structures