Lead Guest Editor:
Physiology department, Belarusian State Medical University,
Mannheim Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, University Medical Centre Mannheim
The visual system is the main source of information analyzing which the human brain recognizes details, shape, contrast, brightness, colour and identifies visual objects; forms a 3-dimensional static and dynamic visual space locating the figure, objects and dynamics of their motion in it. The brain uses to perceive and stored visual information in the memory to perform other functions: writing, reading, fine motions; maintenance of attention, consciousness, thinking, motivations, emotions; forming behavior, mental reactions; control of circadian rhythms, sleep and wakefulness. In the implementation of visual functions and the use of visual signals to perform other functions more than 30 brain structures including many of cortical areas, subcortical centers of the diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum are involved. Thus, the visual system is a window to the brain and according to the indicators of its sensorimotor functions the functional state ofthe brain structures controlling sensory, oculomotor, pupillary and other vision components in normal conditions and brain diseases can be evaluated.
The purpose of the publication of the special issue International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering entitled “Visual system as a mirror of neuronal processes in healthy and damaged brain” will contribute to spreading of knowledge about the vast opportunities to assess the functions of healthy and damaged brain through research of their reflection in the mirror which is the visual system.
In the Special Issue it is planned to publish articles on research results obtained by classical and modern methods (OCT, MRI, light sensitivity thresholds et al.), confirming the existence of a close connection between demyelinating (eg, multiple sclerosis), ischemic (eg, in haemodynamics disorder in the brain vessels) brain damage and structural changes in the retina, optic nerve and visual tracts (thinning of the nerve fiber layer, the death of ganglionic cells and their axons) as well as the deterioration of the contrast, color sensitivity, eye movement and pupil reflexes disorders. It is also planned to publish articles about the connection between the retinal vessel state and brain vessels, changing of the parameters of retinal vascular tree as a predictor of future cerebral strokes, complications after diabetes and arterial hypertension. It is planned to give some material about disorders of processing of visual signals in the cortex associated with the occurrence of visual agnosia, visual illusions and space orientation impossibility.