Humans are at the center of concerns about sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. The goals of sustainable development can not be achieved, as long as diseases continue to claim lives (WHO, 2002). Underdeveloped countries today face health problems (IDRC, 2018). This is a worrying situation, which has mobilized, and political authorities and researchers. As a result, women and girls are particularly at risk for disease (AIDS, hepatitis, metabolic diseases…), because of poor governance, poverty, certain social practices, illiteracy and poor care (Toure, 2005). They are victims of forced marriage, excision, excluded from the management of land ... Few are women, who enjoy a good general state of health and know the well-being. Yet, the right of women to good health is recognized in Beijing in 1995 (UN, 2000). The purpose of this Special Issue is to ensure better access for women to health care and services in underdeveloped countries. The specific objectives are: (i) to take stock of the health situation of women and girls in these countries; then to (ii): propose solutions, with a view to better care for women and girls at the health level in the underdeveloped countries. The scope of the special issue is to deconstruct the health situation of women and girls in these countries, which is essential for sustainable development.