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Antimicrobial resistance is currently one of the most worrying public health problems globally, threatening to return to a pre-antibiotic era. Worldwide the impact of resistant bacterial infections is reflected in increasing deaths, disability-adjusted life years, costs in health care and loss of work productivity. The variation antimicrobial resistance is wide and dependent on the bacterial strain, local use of antimicrobials and geographic region, but its growth is transverse. Inadequate antibiotic intake is a modifiable factor and most often implicated in the induction of antimicrobial resistance. Given the fact that 80-90% of antibiotics are prescribed in primary health care this special issue is to improve the perception and encourage dissemination of research in the area of Antimicrobial Resistance. Original research papers are solicited in any aspect of innovative approach on dealing with this issue, regarding the role of Primary Care.