American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Evaluation of Nootropic Activity of Persicaria flaccida on Cognitive Performance, Brain Antioxidant Markers and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rats: Implication for the Management of Alzheimer’s Disease

Oxidative stress is the leading cause of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer´s disease (AD). The plant Persicaria flaccida (PF) is known in Bengali as red Biskatali belongs to family Polygonaceae. Preliminary studies have shown the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, neuroprotective activities of Biskatali. In this consequence, methanolic extract of PF (MEPF) was selected to explore the ability of this plant to enhance cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity which can be used for the treatment of AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MEPF on cognitive performance, brain antioxidant enzymes and acetylcholinesterase activity in rats by using behavioral and biochemical study. Treatment with MEPF (i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) was investigated for 14 days in Swiss albino male rats and its effects on different types of memory were examined using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test, Passive Avoidance (PA) test, Morris Water Maze (MWM) test as well as level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in rat brain tissue homogenates. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Administration of highest dose of MEPF significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) decreased retention transfer latency (RTL) of rats on 7th and 14th day compared to the control group in EPM test. In PA test highest dose of MEPF meaningfully (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) increased step-through latency (STL) of rats on 7th, 12th, 13th and 14th day with respect to control group. Both doses of MEPF markedly (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) decreased escape latency (EL), increased time spent in the target quadrant (TSTQ) and time spent in the annuli (TSA) of rats on successive days as compared to that of control group in MWM test. MEPF administration, especially highest dose significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) increased the level of CAT, SOD, GSR, GST & GSH-Px and considerably (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) decreased TBARS level & AChE activity in the brain tissue homogenates of rats compared to the control group. Behavioral and biochemical studies suggest that MEPF promotes cognitive function by improving different types of memory and reduces oxidative stress by increasing the level of brain antioxidant markers and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. Therefore, this plant extract can be used for enhancing memory in neurodegenerative disorders like AD.

Nootropic, Persicaria flaccida, Cognition, Brain Antioxidants Marker, Acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer´s Disease

Md. Sahab Uddin, Md. Nasrullah, Md. Sarwar Hossain, Md. Mosiqur Rahman, Md. Shahid Sarwar, et al. (2016). Evaluation of Nootropic Activity of Persicaria flaccida on Cognitive Performance, Brain Antioxidant Markers and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rats: Implication for the Management of Alzheimer’s Disease. American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 4(2), 26-37.

Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. A. Arzi, N. S. Karampour, M. Abolzadeh, M. Salahcheh. “Effect of quercetin on retention and retrieval of memory in young and aged mice”. Res J Pharma Bio Che Sci, 2015 6: 968-969.
2. D. R. Riddle. “Brain aging: models, methods, and mechanisms”. 1st ed, USA: CRC Press, 2007.
3. A Bhattacharjee, S. C. Shashidhara, S. Saha. “Nootropic activity of Crataeva nurvala buch-ham against scopolamine induced cognitive impairment”. EXCLI Journal, 2015; 14: 335.
4. M. W. Weiner, D. P. Veitch, P. S. Aisen, L. A. Beckett, N. J. Cairns, R. C. Green, et al., “The Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative: a review of papers published since its inception”. Alzheimer’s Demen, 2012; 8: 1-68.
5. M. Asaduzzaman, M. J. Uddin, M. A. Kader, A. H. M. K. Alam, A. A. Rahman, M. Rashid. “In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the antioxidant properties of Aegle marmelos leaf extract: implications for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease”. Psychogeri, 2014; 14: 1-10.
6. R. Yaari R, J. Corey-Bloom. “Alzheimer's disease”. Sem Neurol, 2007; 27: 32-41.
7. Wimo, B. Winblad, H. Aguero-Torres, E. Von Strauss. “The magnitude of dementia occurrence in the world”. Alzheimer's Dis Asso Disor, 2003; 17: 63-67.
8. R. Sultana, D. A. Butterfield. “Role of oxidative stress in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease”. J Bio Chem, 2007; 282: 6984-6991.
9. B. Kuhla, C. Haase, K. Flach, H. J. Luth, T. Arendt, G. Munch. “Effect of pseudophosphorylation and cross linking by lipid peroxidation and advanced glycation end product precursors on tau aggregation and filament formation”. J Biological Che, 2007; 282: 6984-6991.
10. M. Sarter, J. P. Bruno. “Cognitive functions of cortical acetylcholine: toward a unifying hypothesis”. Brain Res Rev, 1997; 23: 28-46.
11. G. Zimmerman, H. Soreq. “Termination and beyond: acetylcholinesterase as a modulator of synaptic transmission”. Cell Tissue Res, 2006; 326: 655-669.
12. R. M. Lane, S. G. Potkin, A. Enz. “Targeting acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in dementia”. Intl J Neuropsycopharmacol, 2006; 9: 101-124.
13. Y. T. Chang, W. N. Chang, N. W. Tsai, C. C. Huang, C. T. Kung, Y. J. Su. “The roles of biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant in Alzheimer’s Disease: a systematic review”. BioMed Res Inter, 2014; 1-11.
14. D. J. Bonda, X. Wang, G. Perry, A. Nunomura, M. Tabaton, X. Zhu, et al., “Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease: a possibility for prevention”. Neuropharmaco, 2010; 59: 290-294.
15. L. Migliore, I. Fontana, F. Trippi, R. Colognato, F. Coppede, G. Tognoni, et al., “Oxidative DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes of mild cognitive impairment and AD patients”. Neurobiol Agi, 2005; 26: 567-573.
16. C. Behl, “Oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease: implications for prevention and therapy”. Subcel Bioche, 2005; 38: 65-78.
17. J. Sharma, R. Chawla, R. Kumar, A. Sharma, R. K. Sharma, R. Arora. “Camellia sinensis as a safe neuroprotective radiation counter measure agent”. Int J Pharmace Sci Inven, 2013; 2: 26-33.
18. B. S. Oken, D. M. Storzbach, and J. A. Kaye, “The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease”. Arch Neurol, 1995; 55: 1409-14015.
19. S. Goswami, A. Saoji, N. Kumar, V. Thawani, M. Tiwari, M. Thawani. “Effect of Bacopa monnierion cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease patients”. Int J Colla Res Int Medi Pub Heal, 2011; 3: 285-289.
20. A. A. Skolnick. “Old Chinese herbal medicine used for fever yields possible new Alzheimer disease therapy”. J Am Med Assoc, 1997; 277: 776.
21. V. Altay, I. I. Ozyigit, M. Keskin, G. Demir, I. E. Yalcin. “An ecological study of endemic plant Polygonum istanbulicum keskin and its environs”. Paki J Bot, 2013; 45: 455-459.
22. K. Uddin, A. H. M. M. Rahman, A. K. M. R. Islam. “Taxonomy and traditional medicine practices of Polygonaceae (smartweed) family at Rajshahi, Bangladesh”. Int J Adv Res, 2014; 2: 459-469.
23. M. J. Hossen, S. C. Kim, Y. J. Son et al., “AP-1-targeting anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Persicaria chinensis”. Evi-Bas Comple Alt Medi, 2015; 2015: 1-9.
24. S. Schmitt-Schillig, S. Schaffer, C. C. Weber, G. P. Eckert, W. E. Muller. “Flavonoids and the aging brain”. J Physio Pharmacolo, 2005; 56: 23-36.
25. A.Q. Haddad, V. Venkateswaran, L. Viswanathan, S. J. Teahan, N. E. Fleshner, L. H.Klotz. “Novel antiproliferative flavonoids induce cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cell lines”. Prosta Canc Prosta Dise. 2006; 9: 68-76.
26. A. S. Apu, S. H. Bhuyan, S. S. Prova, M. A. Muhit. “Anti-inflammatory activity of medicinal plants native to Bangladesh: a review”. J App Pharmace Sci. 2012; 2(2): 7-10.
27. M. Ahmed, S. K. Sadhu, B. K. Datta, J. K. Kundu, S. C. Bachar. “Preliminary studies on the antiinflammatory, analgesic and diuretic activity of stagninol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Persicaria stagnina”. Die Pharmazie, 1997; 52(6): 472-475.
28. N. H. N. Hashim, F. Abas, K. Shaari, H. H. Lajis. “Antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of Persicaria hydropiper”. Int J Food Prop, 2013; 16(5): 1028.
29. A. K. M. M. Huq, J. A. Jamal J. Stanslas. “Ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological aspects of Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre”. Evi-Bas Comp Alt Med, 2014; 2014: 1-11.
30. National Research Council. “Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals”. 8th ed. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press, 2011.
31. J. B. Weon, J. Lee, M. R. Eom, Y. S. Jung, C. J. Ma. “The effects of Loranthus parasiticuson scopolamine induced memory impairment in mice”. J Evi-Bas Com Alt Med, 2014; 2014: 1-7.
32. A. K. M. Moyeenul Huq, J. A. Jamal, J. Stanslas. “Ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological aspects of Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre”. Evi-Bas Com Alt Med, 2014 (2014): 1-5.
33. Organisation for Economic cooperation and Development. “OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals:acute oral toxicity – acute toxic class method”. Paris: OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications, 2002.
34. D. S. Reddy S. K. Kulkarni. “Possible role of nitric oxide in the nootropic and antiamnesic effects of neurosteroids on aging- and dizocilpine-induced learning impairment”. Brain Res, 1998; 799: 215-29.
35. Z. Hlinak I. Krejci. “MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze in mice”. Behav Brain Rese, 2002; 131: 221-25.
36. T. V. S. S. Swaroop, S. Banerjee and M. Handral, “Neuroprotective evaluation of leaf extract of Dalbergia sissoo in 3-nitropropionic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats”. Int J Pharmaceu Sci Drug Res, 2014; 6: 41-47.
37. U. D. Ozkay, O. D. Can, Y. Ozkay Y. Ozturk. “Effect of benzothiazole/piperazine derivatives on intracerebroventricularstreptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits”. Pharmacol Repo, 2012; 64: 834-847.
38. S. O. Ogren, W. S. Stone H. J. Altman. “Evidence for a functional interaction between serotonergic and cholinergic mechanisms in memory retrieval”. Soci Neurosci Abs, 1985; 256: 1-11.
39. F. J. van der Staay, T. Schuurman, C. G. Van Reenen, S. M. Korte. “Emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks: a comparison between four rat strains”. Behav Brain Fun, 2009; 5: 1-24.
40. J. Wang, X. Wang, B. Lv, W. Yuan, Z. Feng, M. I. Weidong. “Effects of Fructus akebiae on learning and memory impairment in a scopolamine-induced animal model of dementia”. Experi Therapeu Medic, 2014; 8: 671-675.
41. R. Morris. “Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat”. J Neurosci Meth, 1984; 11: 47-60.
42. D. Dhingra V. Kumar. “Memory-enhancing activity of Palmatine in mice using elevated plus maze and morris water maze”. Adv Pharmacol Sci, 2012; 2012: 1-5.
43. M. Taati, M. Alirezaei, M. H. Moshkatalsadat, B. Rasoulian, M. Moghadasi F. Sheikhzadeh. “Protective effects of Ziziphus jujube fruit extract against ethanol-induced hippocampal oxidative stress and spatial memory impairment in rats”. J Medi Plants Res, 2011; 5: 915-921.
44. A. Blokland, E. Geraerts M. Been. “A detailed analysis of rats' spatial memory in a probe trial of a Morris task”. Behavi Brain Res, 2004; 154: 71-75.
45. T. Kameyama, T. Nabeshima, T. Kozawa. “Step-down-type passive avoidance- and escape-learning method. Suitability for experimental amnesia models”. J Pharmacol Methods, 1986; 16: 39-5.
46. B. Chance, A. C. Maehly. “Assay of catalase and peroxidases”. Meth in Enzymo, 1955; 11: 764-775.
47. P. Kakkar, B. Das, P. N. Viswanathan. “A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase”. Ind J Bioche&Biophy, 1984; 21: 130-132.
48. I. Carlberg, E. B. Mannervik. “Glutathione level in rat brain”. J Biol Chem, 1975; 250: 4475-4480.
49. W. H. Habig, M. J. Pabst, W. B. Jakoby. “Glutathione-S-transferases: the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation”. J Bio Che, 1974; 249: 7130-7139.
50. J. Mohandas, J. J. Marshal, G. G. Duggin, J. S. Horvath, D. J. Tiller. “Differential distribution of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in rabbit kidney: possible implications in analgesic nephropathy”. Bioche Pharmacol, 1984; 33: 1801-1807.
51. M. Iqbal, M. D. Sharma, H. R. Zadeh, N. Hasan, M. Abdulla, M. Athar, et al., “Glutathione metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) mediated hepatic injury”. Redox Repo, 1996; 2: 385-391.
52. G. L. Ellman, K. D. Courtney, V. Andres, R. M. Featherstone, “A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity”. Bioche Pharmacol, 1996; 7: 88-95.
53. M. Bhaskar, M. Chintamaneni. “Investigating the role of Eclipta alba on brain antioxidant markers, cognitive performance and acetylcholinesterase activity of rats”. Int J Pharmace Phytopharmaco Res, 2014; 3: 390-394.
54. J. B. Weon, J. Lee, M. R. Eom, Y. S. Jung, C. J. Ma “The effects of Loranthus parasiticusonscopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice”. Evi-Base Compl Alt Medi, 2014; 2014: 1-6.
55. A. Petkau, W. Chelack, S. Pleskach, B. Meeker, C. Brady. “Radioprotection of mice by superoxidedismutase”. Bioche and Biophy Res Communi, 1975; 65: 886.
56. M. Salin, J. McCord. “Free Radicals and Inflammation. Protection of phagocytosing leukocytes by superoxide dismutase”. J ClinInvesti, 1975; 56: 1319.
57. M. A, Ansari, S. W. Scheff. “Oxidative stress in the progression of Alzheimer Disease in the frontal cortex”. J Neuropa&Experi Neurol, 2010; 69: 155-167.
58. V. K. Celik, E. Ersan, Ersan, S. Bak, O. Dogan. “Plasma catalase, glutathione-s-transferase and total antioxidant activity levels of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder”. Adv Biosci Biotech, 2013; 4: 183-187.
59. C. Fernandez, E. S. Miguel, A. Fernandez-briera. “Superoxide dismutase and catalase: tissue activities and relation with age in the long-lived species Margaritifera margaritifera”. Biolog Res, 2009; 42: 57-68.
60. Y. Z. Fang, S. Yang, G. Wu. “Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition”. Nutri, 2000; 18: 872-879.
61. M. Deponte, “Glutathione catalysis and the reaction mechanisms of glutathione-dependent enzymes”. Biochimiet Biophysi Acta, 2013; 1830: 3217-3266.
62. J. D. Hayes, J. U. Flanagan, I. R. Jowsey. “Glutathione transferases”. Ann Rev Pharmaco Toxico, 2005; 45: 51-88.
63. A. C. Maritim, R. A. Sanders, J. B. Watkins. “Effects of α-lipoic acid on biomarkers of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”. J NutritiBioche, 2003; 14: 288-294.
64. J. A. Henning, and W. Chow. “Lipid peroxidation and endothelial cell injury: implications in atherosclerosis”. Free Rad Biolo Medi, 1988; 4: 99-106.
65. B. Halliwell, J. M. C. Gutteridge. “Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: an overview”. Meth Enzymolo, 1990; 186: 1-85.
66. R. A. Khan, M. R. Khan S. Sahreen. “Brain antioxidant markers, cognitive performance and acetyl cholinesterase activity of rat: Efficiency of Sonchus asper”. Behav Brain Func, 2012; 8: 21.
67. R. A. Khan. “Effects of Launaea procumbens on brain antioxidant enzymes and cognitive performance of rat”. BMC Comp Alt Medi, 2012; 12: 1.