Evaluation of Phytochemical, Anti-nutritional and Antioxidant Potentials of Flower and Seed Methanol Extracts of Senna alata L. Grown in Nigeria
Senna alata L., commonly known as Candlestick senna or Wild senna belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae is widely distributed in Northern Nigeria. It has been used frequently in herbal medicine to treat different kinds of pathogenic conditions, particularly as laxative or purgative and in the treatment of skin infections as such as ring worm, impetigo, syphilis, sores, psoriasis, herpes, scabies, rashes, and itching. The rate at which this plant parts (flowers and seeds) have been frequently used in Nupe ethnomedicine led to the increase interest to determine the phytochemical, anti-nutritive and antioxidant activities of the flower and seed of Senna alata L. grown in Bida Niger State, Nigeria using standard analytical methods. Phytochemical screening of the flower and seed of the plant revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins, alkaloid and anthraquinone, steroid and cardiac glycosides, were slightly present, while resins was absent. The metabolites present were quantitatively determined with alkaloid contents of 10.23±0.35 and 8.41±0.76 saponins 25.72±0.83 and 28.84±0.44, flavonoids 28.52±0.47 and 32.25±0.52, tannins 32.98±0.74 and 39.99±0.37, phenols 4.24±0.76 and 6.31±0.68 mg/100 g for flower and seed respectively. These results confirm that these metabolites obtained from the two parts of this plant were within the range of toxicity levels according to World Health Organization safe limits. The results of anti-nutritional factors revealed the oxalate contents with 4.24±0.12 and 6.31±0.41, cyanide content 8.59±0.71 and 4.89±0.69 and phytate content 17.54±0.63 and 13.72±0.81 mg/100g for flower and seed respectively. The values of anti-nutritional factors obtained from this work show that they may not pose any effects based on their toxicity levels and as recommended by World Health Organization. The major components of the chemical compounds deduced from GC/MS for the two parts of this plant investigated revealed the presence of β-d-mannofuranoside (24.23%), n-hexadecanoic acid (19.20%), oleic acid (28.27%), nonadecanoic acid (5.36%), 3, 11-tetradecadien-1-ol (3.79%) and octadecanal (17.22%), oleic acid (50.21%), octadecanoic acid (7.14), n-hexadecanoic acid (34.16%), pentanoic acid (3.39%) and 2-ethyl-1-decanol (2.21%). Some of these phytoconstituents like n-hexadecanoic and oleic are responsible for the said pharmacological activities. Thus, properly domesticated and utilization of this plant will serve as source of bioactive agents for pharmaceutical industries.
Mathew John Tsado,
Evaluation of Phytochemical, Anti-nutritional and Antioxidant Potentials of Flower and Seed Methanol Extracts of Senna alata L. Grown in Nigeria, American Journal of Applied Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 93-100.
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