Historical Development of Liquid Crystalline Stationary Phases: An Overview
American Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 5-1, October 2015, Pages: 7-10
Received: Apr. 23, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 24, 2015; Published: May 9, 2015
Views 3914      Downloads 86
Author
Emad Ghanem, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Damascus University, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Nematic liquid crystals have shown particular selectivity and sensitivity as stationary phases for the separation of isomers having similar volatilities. Because of their unique selectivity towards rigid solute isomers, liquid crystal stationary phases were considered at one time to be a very promising class of materials that give the gas chromatographic separations a great deal of attention. In this overview, we present a brief historical view of the liquid crystal stationary phases development, which were successfully used in gas chromatography for separation of isomers.
Keywords
Liquid Crystal, Chromatography, Stationary Phase, Separation, Nematic
To cite this article
Emad Ghanem, Historical Development of Liquid Crystalline Stationary Phases: An Overview, American Journal of Applied Chemistry. Special Issue: Development of Liquid Crystalline Stationary Phases for Liquid and Gas Chromatographic Separations. Vol. 3, No. 5-1, 2015, pp. 7-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ajac.s.2015030501.12
References
[1]
M. Megharaj, B. Ramakrishnan, K. Venkateswarlu, N. Sethunathan, R. Naidu, Environ Int, vol. 37, PP. 1362–1375, 2011.
[2]
B.R. Simoneit BR, Mass Spectrom Rev, vol. 24, PP. 719–765, 2005.
[3]
M.P. Fraser, K. Lakshmanan, Environ Sci Technol, vol. 34, PP. 4560–4564, 2000.
[4]
M.A. Mazurek, Environ Health Perspect, vol. 110, PP. 995–1003, 2002.
[5]
J.J. Schauer, W.F. Rogge, L.M. Hildemann, M.A. Mazurek, G.R. Cass, Atmos Environ, vol. 30, PP. 3837–3855, 1996.
[6]
B.J. Williams, A.H. Goldstein, N.M. Kreisberg, S.V. Hering, D.R. Worsnop, I.M. Ulbrich, K.S. Docherty, J.L. Jimenez, Atmos Chem Phys, vol. 10, PP. 11577–11603, 2010.
[7]
WL. Jr. Zielinski, CRC handbook of chromatography: hydrocarbons, vol. 1. Gas chromatography. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton. 1987.
[8]
K.P. Naikwadi, P.P. Wadgaonkar, J Chromatogr A, vol. 811(1–2), PP. 97, 1998.
[9]
L.E. Cook, R.C. Spangelo, Anal Chem, vol. 46(1), PP. 122–126, 1974.
[10]
WL. Jr. Zielinski, G.M. Janini, J Chromatogr A, vol. 186, PP. 237–247, 1979.
[11]
H. Rotzsche, Stationary phases in gas chromatography. J Chromatogr Library, vol. 48, Elsevier, Amsterdam. 1991.
[12]
P. Berdagué, F. Perez, J. Courtieu, J.P. Bayle,O. Abdelhadi, S. Guermouche, M.H. Guermouche, Chromatographia, vol. 40, PP. 581–586, 1995.
[13]
A. Meddour, J. Courtieu, O. Abdelhadi, S. Guermouche, M.H. Guermouche, Chromatographia, vol. 43, PP. 387–392, 1996.
[14]
J.P. Bayle, Chromatographia, vol. 50, PP. 338–345, 1999.
[15]
D. Bélaïdi, S. Sebih, S. Boudah, M.H. Guermouche, J.P. Bayle, J Chromatogr A, vol. 1087, PP. 52–56, 2005.
[16]
M. Dahmane, F. Athman, S. Sebih, M.H. Guermouche, J.P. Bayle, S. Boudah, Chromatographia, vol. 70, PP. 489–495, 2009.
[17]
C.B. McArdle, Side chain liquid crystal polymers. Blackie, London. 1989.
[18]
P.J. Collings, Liquid crystals: Nature's delicate phase of matter. Hilger Bristol. 1990.
[19]
Z. Witkiewicz, Liquid crystals: applications and uses. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore. 1991.
[20]
Z. Witkiewicz, J. Mazur, Liq Chromatogr Gas Chromatogr, vol. 8, P. 224, 1990.
[21]
H. Kelker, Z Anal Chem, vol. 198, PP. 254–266, 1963.
[22]
H. Kelker, E. Von Schivizhoffen, Advances in chromatography, vol. 6. Marcel Dekker, New York. PP. 247–297, 1968.
[23]
M.J.S. Dewar, J.P. Shröeder, J Am Chem Soc, vol. 86, PP. 5235–5239, 1964.
[24]
F. Perez, P. Berdague, J.P. Bayle, J. Courtieu, S. Boudah, M.H. Guermouche, J High Resolut Chromatogr, vol. 20, PP. 379–384, 1997.
[25]
F. Gritti, G. Felix, Chromatographia, vol. 55, P. 523, 2002.
[26]
Z. Witkiewicz, J. Oszczudłowski, M. Repelewicz, Chem Anal (Warsaw), vol. 48, P. 397, 2003.
[27]
Z. Witkiewicz, J Chromatogr A, vol. 1062, PP. 155–174, 2005.
[28]
E. Ghanem, H. Sahar, Chromatograpia, vol. 77(9-10), PP. 653-662, 2014.
[29]
J. Coca, I. Medina, S.H. Langer, Chromatographia, vol. 25, PP. 825–830, 1988.
[30]
G. Chiavari, L. Pastorelli, Chromatographia, vol. 7, PP. 30–33, 1974.
[31]
D.E. Martire, P.A. Blasco, P.F. Carone, L.C. Chow, H. Vicini, J Phys Chem, vol. 72, PP. 3489–3495, 1968.
[32]
A.E. Habboush, S.M. Farroha, A.Y. Kreishan, J Chromatogr A, vol. 664, 71–76, 1994.
[33]
M.J.S. Dewar, J.P. Schroeder, J Org Chem, vol. 30, PP. 3485–3490, 1965.
[34]
K.P. Naikwadi, D.G. Panse, B.V. Bapat, B.B. Ghatge, J Chromatogr A, vol. 195, PP. 309–316, 1980.
[35]
K.P. Naikwadi, D.G. Panse, B.V. Bapat, B.B. Ghatge, J Chromatogr A, vol. 206, PP. 361–367, 1981.
[36]
K.P. Naikwadi, S. Rokushika, H. Hatano, J Chromatogr A, vol. 331, PP. 69–76, 1985.
[37]
F. Athman, M. Dahmane, S. Boudah, M.H. Guermouche, J.P. Bayle, S. Sebih, Chromatographia, vol. 70, PP. 503–510, 2009.
[38]
M. Dahmane, F. Athman, S. Sebih, M.H. Guermouche, J.P. Bayle, S. Boudah, J Chromatogr A, vol. 1217, PP. 6562–6568, 2010.
[39]
J.P. Schroeder, G.W. Gray, P.A. Winsor, Liquid crystals and plastic crystals. Ellis Horwood, Chichester. p 361, 1974.
[40]
A. Ziolek, Z. Witkiewicz, R. Dabrowski, J Chromatogr A, vol. 294, PP. 139–154, 1984.
[41]
F. Gritti, G. Félix, M.F. Achard, F. Hardouin, J Chromatogr A, vol. 893, PP. 359–366, 2000.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186