International Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences


Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Human CO2 Emissions Have Little Effect on Atmospheric CO2

The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) agrees human CO2 is only 5 percent and natural CO2 is 95 percent of the CO2 inflow into the atmosphere. The ratio of human to natural CO2 in the atmosphere must equal the ratio of the inflows. Yet IPCC claims human CO2 has caused all the rise in atmospheric CO2 above 280 ppm, which is now 130 ppm or 32 percent of today’s atmospheric CO2. To cause the human 5 percent to become 32 percent in the atmosphere, the IPCC model treats human and natural CO2 differently, which is impossible because the molecules are identical. IPCC’s Bern model artificially traps human CO2 in the atmosphere while it lets natural CO2 flow freely out of the atmosphere. By contrast, a simple Physics Model treats all CO2 molecules the same, as it should, and shows how CO2 flows through the atmosphere and produces a balance level where outflow equals inflow. Thereafter, if inflow is constant, level remains constant. The Physics Model has only one hypothesis, that outflow is proportional to level. The Physics Model exactly replicates the 14C data from 1970 to 2014 with only two physical parameters: balance level and e-time. The 14C data trace how CO2 flows out of the atmosphere. The Physics Model shows the 14 CO2 e-time is a constant 16.5 years. Other data show e-time for 12CO2 is about 4 to 5 years. IPCC claims human CO2 reduces ocean buffer capacity. But that would increase e-time. The constant e-time proves IPCC’s claim is false. IPCC argues that the human-caused reduction of 14C and 13C in the atmosphere prove human CO2 causes all the increase in atmospheric CO2. However, numbers show these isotope data support the Physics Model and reject the IPCC model. The Physics Model shows how inflows of human and natural CO2 into the atmosphere set balance levels proportional to their inflows. Each balance level remains constant if its inflow remains constant. Continued constant CO2 emissions do not add more CO2 to the atmosphere. No CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere. Present human CO2 inflow produces a balance level of about 18 ppm. Present natural CO2 inflow produces a balance level of about 392 ppm. Human CO2 is insignificant to the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Increased natural CO2 inflow has increased the level of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Carbon Dioxide, CO2, Climate Change, Anthropogenic

APA Style

Edwin X Berry. (2019). Human CO2 Emissions Have Little Effect on Atmospheric CO2. International Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 3(1), 13-26.

ACS Style

Edwin X Berry. Human CO2 Emissions Have Little Effect on Atmospheric CO2. Int. J. Atmos. Oceanic Sci. 2019, 3(1), 13-26. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaos.20190301.13

AMA Style

Edwin X Berry. Human CO2 Emissions Have Little Effect on Atmospheric CO2. Int J Atmos Oceanic Sci. 2019;3(1):13-26. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaos.20190301.13

Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. USGCRP, 2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp; 2018. doi: 10.7930/J0J964J6.
2. IPCC, 2001: Working Group 1: The scientific basis. The Carbon Cycle and Atmosphere CO2.
3. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.
4. D. Archer, M. Eby, V. Brovkin, A. Ridgwell, L. Cao, U. Mikolajewicz, et al., “Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide”. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 37, pp. 117–134; 2009.
5. G. C. Cawley, “On the Atmospheric residence time of anthropogenically sourced CO2”. Energy Fuels 25, pp. 5503–5513; 2011.
6. Z. Kern, M. Leuenberger, Comment on "The phase relation between atmospheric CO2 and global temperature" by Humlum et al. Glob. Planet. Change 100: 51–69.: Isotopes ignored. Glob. Planet. Chang. 109, 1–2; 2013.
7. P. Kohler, J. Hauck, C. Volker, D. A. Wolf-Gladrow, M. Butzin, J. B. Halpern, et al. Comment on “Scrutinizing the carbon cycle andCO2residence time in the atmosphere” by H. Harde, Global and Planetary Change; 2017.
8. R. Revelle, H. Suess, “CO2 exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during past decades”. Tellus. 9: 18-27; 1957.
9. C. Starr, “Atmospheric CO2 residence time and the carbon cycle”. Science Direct, 18, 12, pp. 1297-1310; 1992.
10. T. V. Segalstad, “Carbon cycle modelling and the residence time of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric CO2: on the construction of the "Greenhouse Effect Global Warming" dogma”. In: Bate, R. (Ed.): Global warming: the continuing debate. ESEF, Cambridge, U. K. [ISBN 0952773422]: 184-219; 1998.
11. Z. Jaworowski, “Climate Change: Incorrect information on pre-industrial CO2”. Statement written for the Hearing before the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. 2003.
12. Z. Jaworowski, “CO2: The Greatest Scientific Scandal of our Time”. 21st CENTURY Science & Technology. 2007.
13. E. Beck, “180 Years of Atmospheric CO2 Gas Analysis by Chemical Methods”. Energy & Environment. Vol 18, No. 2. 2007.
14. A. Rorsch, R.S. Courtney, D. Thoenes, “The Interaction of Climate Change and the CO2 Cycle”. Energy & Environment, Volume 16, No 2; 2005.
15. R.S. Courtney, “Limits to existing quantitative understanding of past, present and future changes to atmospheric CO2 concentration”. International Conference on Climate Change, New York. 2008.
16. T, Quirk, “Sources and sinks of CO2”. Energy & Environment. Volume: 20 Issue: 1, pp. 105-121. 2009.
17. R. E. Essenhigh, “Potential dependence of global warming on the residence time (RT) in the atmosphere of anthropogenically sourced CO2”. Energy Fuel 23, pp. 2773-2784; 2009.
18. J. A. Glassman, “On why CO2 is known not to have accumulated in the atmosphere and what is happening with CO2 in the modern era”. Rocket Scientist Journal; 2010.
19. M. L. Salby, “Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate”. Cambridge University Press. 2012. (ISBN: 978-0-521-76718-7)
20. M. L. Salby, “Relationship Between Greenhouse Gases and Global Temperature”. Video Presentation, April 18, 2013. Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg.
21. M. L. Salby, “Atmosphere Carbon”. Video Presentation, July 18, 2016. University College London.
22. M. L. Salby, “What is really behind the increase in atmospheric CO2?” Video Presentation, October 10, 2018. Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg, Germany.
23. O. Humlum, K. Stordahl, J.E. Solheim, “The phase relation between atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures”. Global and Planetary Change, 100, pp 51-69, 2013.
24. H. Harde, “Scrutinizing the carbon cycle and CO2 residence time in the atmosphere”. Global and Planetary Change. 152, 19-26; 2017.
25. H. Harde, “What Humans Contribute to Atmospheric CO2: Comparison of Carbon Cycle Models with Observations”. Earth Sciences Vol. 8, No. 3, 2019, pp. 139-159. doi: 10.11648/,
26. E. X Berry, “A fatal flaw in global warming science”. Basic Science of a Changing Climate. Porto University, Portugal. Sep 7; 2018.
27. E. X Berry, “Contradictions to IPCC’s climate change theory”. Annual meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Phoenix; 2019.
28. T. Boden, B. Andres, (2017) Global CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacture, and gas flaring: 1751-2014.
29. H. B. Dwight, “Tables of Integrals and Other Mathematical Data” Item 90.1. MacMillian Company; 1955.
30. U. Siegenthaler, F. Joos, “Use of a simple model for studying oceanic tracer distributions and the global carbon cycle”. Tellus, 44B, 186-207; 1992.
31. E. Maier-Reimer, L. Hasselmann, “Transport and storage of CO2 in the ocean – an inorganic ocean-circulation carbon cycle model”. Climate Dynamics 2 (2):63–90; 1987. DOI: 10.1007/BF01054491
32. F. Joos, R. Roth, J. S. Fuglestvedt, G. P. Peters, I. G. Enting, von Bloh, et al. “Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics: a multi-model analysis”. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (5), doi: 10.5194/acpd-12-19799-2012. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 2793-2825; 2013.
33. F. Joos, “Parameters for tuning a simple carbon cycle model”. 2002.
34. Q. Hua, M. Barbetti, A. Z. Rakowski. “Atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950–2010”. RADIOCARBON, Vol 55, pp. 2059–2072. Table S2c. 2013.
35. J. C. Turnbull, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, I. Ansell, G. W. Brailsford, R. C. Moss, Norris, et al. “Sixty years of radiocarbon dioxide measurements at Wellington, New Zealand: 1954–2014”. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, pp. 14771–14784. 2017.
36. I. Levin, T. Naegler, B. Kromer, M. Diehl, R. Francey, A. Gomez-Pelaez, et al., “Observations and modelling of the global distribution and long-term trend of atmospheric 14CO2”. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 2010.
37. Wikipedia: Isotopes.
38. A. P. Ballantyne, C. B. Alden, J. B. Miller, P. P. Tans, J. W. C. White, "Increase in observed net carbon dioxide uptake by land and oceans during the past 50 years", Nature 488, pp. 70-73, 2012. doi:10.1038/nature11299.
39. RealClimate, “How do we know that recent CO2 increases are due to human activities?”. 2004.
40. R. Spencer, “A simple model of the atmospheric CO2 budget”. 2019.
41. J. Munshi, “Responsiveness of atmospheric CO2 to fossil fuel emissions: Updated”. SSRN; 2017.
42. Chaamjamal, “Fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric composition”. Thongchai Thailand. 2019.