Applied Engineering

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Safest and Shortest Exit Algorithm for NPP Fire Evacuation

Received: 3 April 2021    Accepted: 23 April 2021    Published: 30 April 2021
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Abstract

Fire safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very important for realizing a high level of safety which investigate achievement reasonably protection for persons and the environment since fire can cause core melts thus emergency fire evacuations are concerned in NPPs. In this research, a new algorithm for Emergency fire evacuation is developed to minimize evacuation time for limiting the evacuee’s exposure to fire hazards products. The developed algorithm is a Safest Shortest Exit algorithm (SSE) which consists of three techniques: a rules-based to recognize the safest route, Distance Vector Hop (DV-Hop) localization to determine evacuee's location, and Dijkstra to produce the shortest route. The developed SSE is simulated for protecting the persons inside NPP buildings through three stages. Validation of the developed SSE algorithm is realised through simulation fire scenario inside a standard Main Control Room (MCR) in a Nuclear Power Plant as realistic fire scenario using the Consolidated Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) as fire zone model. CFAST produces output fire data that used by SSE to create the exit map for safest and shortest route for evacuees. The Results of the simulation represent that the developed algorithm can produce the safest and shortest evacuation route within minimum evacuation time in form of a clear tree graph.

DOI 10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16
Published in Applied Engineering (Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2021)
Page(s) 14-21
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Emergency Fire Evacuation, a Standard Main Control Room, Safest and Shortest Route, NPP Fire Evacuation, DV-Hop Localization Technique, CFAST Model, Dijkstra Algorithm

References
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[3] J.-j. Li, and H.-y. Zhu, “A risk-based model of evacuation route optimization under fire,” Procedia engineering, vol. 211, pp. 365-371, 2018.
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[16] U. NRC, “Verification and validation of selected fire models for nuclear power plant applications,” NUREG-1824 (EPRI 1011999), 2007.
[17] V. Babrauskas, Ignition handbook: Fire science publishers: Issaquah, WA, 2003.
[18] D. A. Purser, J. A. Rowley, P. J. Fardell, and M. Bensilum, “Fully enclosed design fires for hazard assessment in relation to yields of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide,” Proceedings of Interflam’99, vol. 8, 1999.
[19] C. Afshar, B. Najafi, F. Joglar, Y. Li, D. Henneke, M. Warner, J. Hyslop, J. Kratchman, and N. Siu, “Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment Technique Enhancements: Supplement 1 to NUREG/CR-6850 and EPRI 1011989,” EPRI and NRC, 2010.
[20] A. Ojugo, A. Eboka, O. Okonta, R. Yoro, and F. Aghware, “Genetic algorithm rule-based intrusion detection system (GAIDS),” Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 1182-1194, 2012.
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Cite This Article
  • APA Style

    Amany Fouad Abd El-Aal, Adel Zaglool, Magy Mohamed Kandil. (2021). Safest and Shortest Exit Algorithm for NPP Fire Evacuation. Applied Engineering, 5(1), 14-21. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16

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    ACS Style

    Amany Fouad Abd El-Aal; Adel Zaglool; Magy Mohamed Kandil. Safest and Shortest Exit Algorithm for NPP Fire Evacuation. Appl. Eng. 2021, 5(1), 14-21. doi: 10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16

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    AMA Style

    Amany Fouad Abd El-Aal, Adel Zaglool, Magy Mohamed Kandil. Safest and Shortest Exit Algorithm for NPP Fire Evacuation. Appl Eng. 2021;5(1):14-21. doi: 10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16,
      author = {Amany Fouad Abd El-Aal and Adel Zaglool and Magy Mohamed Kandil},
      title = {Safest and Shortest Exit Algorithm for NPP Fire Evacuation},
      journal = {Applied Engineering},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {14-21},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ae.20210501.16},
      abstract = {Fire safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very important for realizing a high level of safety which investigate achievement reasonably protection for persons and the environment since fire can cause core melts thus emergency fire evacuations are concerned in NPPs. In this research, a new algorithm for Emergency fire evacuation is developed to minimize evacuation time for limiting the evacuee’s exposure to fire hazards products. The developed algorithm is a Safest Shortest Exit algorithm (SSE) which consists of three techniques: a rules-based to recognize the safest route, Distance Vector Hop (DV-Hop) localization to determine evacuee's location, and Dijkstra to produce the shortest route. The developed SSE is simulated for protecting the persons inside NPP buildings through three stages. Validation of the developed SSE algorithm is realised through simulation fire scenario inside a standard Main Control Room (MCR) in a Nuclear Power Plant as realistic fire scenario using the Consolidated Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) as fire zone model. CFAST produces output fire data that used by SSE to create the exit map for safest and shortest route for evacuees. The Results of the simulation represent that the developed algorithm can produce the safest and shortest evacuation route within minimum evacuation time in form of a clear tree graph.},
     year = {2021}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Safest and Shortest Exit Algorithm for NPP Fire Evacuation
    AU  - Amany Fouad Abd El-Aal
    AU  - Adel Zaglool
    AU  - Magy Mohamed Kandil
    Y1  - 2021/04/30
    PY  - 2021
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16
    T2  - Applied Engineering
    JF  - Applied Engineering
    JO  - Applied Engineering
    SP  - 14
    EP  - 21
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2994-7456
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ae.20210501.16
    AB  - Fire safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very important for realizing a high level of safety which investigate achievement reasonably protection for persons and the environment since fire can cause core melts thus emergency fire evacuations are concerned in NPPs. In this research, a new algorithm for Emergency fire evacuation is developed to minimize evacuation time for limiting the evacuee’s exposure to fire hazards products. The developed algorithm is a Safest Shortest Exit algorithm (SSE) which consists of three techniques: a rules-based to recognize the safest route, Distance Vector Hop (DV-Hop) localization to determine evacuee's location, and Dijkstra to produce the shortest route. The developed SSE is simulated for protecting the persons inside NPP buildings through three stages. Validation of the developed SSE algorithm is realised through simulation fire scenario inside a standard Main Control Room (MCR) in a Nuclear Power Plant as realistic fire scenario using the Consolidated Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) as fire zone model. CFAST produces output fire data that used by SSE to create the exit map for safest and shortest route for evacuees. The Results of the simulation represent that the developed algorithm can produce the safest and shortest evacuation route within minimum evacuation time in form of a clear tree graph.
    VL  - 5
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo, Egypt

  • Electronic and Communication Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, (Current in Delta University), Gamasa, Egypt

  • Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo, Egypt

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