American Journal of Environmental Protection

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Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Mogadishu, Banadir Region, Somalia

Received: 19 January 2024    Accepted: 30 January 2024    Published: 21 February 2024
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Abstract

This study was carried out to assess the groundwater quality around the Mogadishu area, Banadir region, Somalia. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA)were applied to 22 groundwater samples collected from boreholes and dug wells in the coastal line districts namely: Wadajir, Kaxda and Dharkinley districts of Banadir region, Somalia. Correlations among 14 hydrochemical parameters were statistically examined. A two-factor model is suggested and explains over 82.4% of the total groundwater quality variation. Factor Analysis (FA) revealed significant variables including electrical conductivity (EC), pH value and other parameters such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, SO42- and hardness expressed as CaCO3, Chlorine, Fluoride, B, S, Si, and NO3 which are responsible for variations in groundwater quality and affect water chemistry. The results were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard guidelines. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to create the spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters. Cluster Analysis (CA) grouped all sites into three zones based on spatial similarities and dissimilarities of physiochemical properties. The pH value and Boron, fluoride calcium, magnesium, sulfide, potassium, and Silica are well within the desirable limit at all locations. However, the concentration of conductivity chloride, hardness as CaCO3, sulfate, nitrate, and Sodium in all samples exceeded the desirable WHO maximum permissible limit. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as natural weathering processes. As a result of this the qualities of the boreholes and dug well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishing unhealthy waste disposal practices, and introducing modern techniques are recommended.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13
Published in American Journal of Environmental Protection (Volume 13, Issue 1, February 2024)
Page(s) 19-29
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Groundwater Quality, Mogadishu, Somalia

References
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Cite This Article
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    Adawe, A. M., Abdi, S. J., Abdi, A. M., Omar, A. D. (2024). Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Mogadishu, Banadir Region, Somalia. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 13(1), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13

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    ACS Style

    Adawe, A. M.; Abdi, S. J.; Abdi, A. M.; Omar, A. D. Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Mogadishu, Banadir Region, Somalia. Am. J. Environ. Prot. 2024, 13(1), 19-29. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13

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    AMA Style

    Adawe AM, Abdi SJ, Abdi AM, Omar AD. Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Mogadishu, Banadir Region, Somalia. Am J Environ Prot. 2024;13(1):19-29. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13,
      author = {Abdolahi Mohamed Adawe and Saed Jama Abdi and Abdirahman Mayow Abdi and Abdirahman Dahir Omar},
      title = {Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Mogadishu, Banadir Region, Somalia},
      journal = {American Journal of Environmental Protection},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-29},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajep.20241301.13},
      abstract = {This study was carried out to assess the groundwater quality around the Mogadishu area, Banadir region, Somalia. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA)were applied to 22 groundwater samples collected from boreholes and dug wells in the coastal line districts namely: Wadajir, Kaxda and Dharkinley districts of Banadir region, Somalia. Correlations among 14 hydrochemical parameters were statistically examined. A two-factor model is suggested and explains over 82.4% of the total groundwater quality variation. Factor Analysis (FA) revealed significant variables including electrical conductivity (EC), pH value and other parameters such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, SO42- and hardness expressed as CaCO3, Chlorine, Fluoride, B, S, Si, and NO3 which are responsible for variations in groundwater quality and affect water chemistry. The results were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard guidelines. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to create the spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters. Cluster Analysis (CA) grouped all sites into three zones based on spatial similarities and dissimilarities of physiochemical properties. The pH value and Boron, fluoride calcium, magnesium, sulfide, potassium, and Silica are well within the desirable limit at all locations. However, the concentration of conductivity chloride, hardness as CaCO3, sulfate, nitrate, and Sodium in all samples exceeded the desirable WHO maximum permissible limit. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as natural weathering processes. As a result of this the qualities of the boreholes and dug well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishing unhealthy waste disposal practices, and introducing modern techniques are recommended.},
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Mogadishu, Banadir Region, Somalia
    AU  - Abdolahi Mohamed Adawe
    AU  - Saed Jama Abdi
    AU  - Abdirahman Mayow Abdi
    AU  - Abdirahman Dahir Omar
    Y1  - 2024/02/21
    PY  - 2024
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13
    T2  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    JF  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    JO  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    SP  - 19
    EP  - 29
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2328-5699
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.13
    AB  - This study was carried out to assess the groundwater quality around the Mogadishu area, Banadir region, Somalia. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA)were applied to 22 groundwater samples collected from boreholes and dug wells in the coastal line districts namely: Wadajir, Kaxda and Dharkinley districts of Banadir region, Somalia. Correlations among 14 hydrochemical parameters were statistically examined. A two-factor model is suggested and explains over 82.4% of the total groundwater quality variation. Factor Analysis (FA) revealed significant variables including electrical conductivity (EC), pH value and other parameters such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, SO42- and hardness expressed as CaCO3, Chlorine, Fluoride, B, S, Si, and NO3 which are responsible for variations in groundwater quality and affect water chemistry. The results were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard guidelines. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to create the spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters. Cluster Analysis (CA) grouped all sites into three zones based on spatial similarities and dissimilarities of physiochemical properties. The pH value and Boron, fluoride calcium, magnesium, sulfide, potassium, and Silica are well within the desirable limit at all locations. However, the concentration of conductivity chloride, hardness as CaCO3, sulfate, nitrate, and Sodium in all samples exceeded the desirable WHO maximum permissible limit. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as natural weathering processes. As a result of this the qualities of the boreholes and dug well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishing unhealthy waste disposal practices, and introducing modern techniques are recommended.
    VL  - 13
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Somali National University, Mogadishu, Somalia

  • Department of MEAL, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), Mogadishu, Somalia

  • Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Somali National University, Badhan, Somalia

  • Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Somali National University, Mogadishu, Somalia

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