Einstein gave examples whereby simultaneous events recorded by one inertial observer may not be simultaneous for other inertial observers. This paper eliminates a common misconception. Simultaneous events are confused with separated events occurring at the same coordinate time. Simultaneous events are witnessed by all observers, whether inertial or accelerated, because simultaneous events occur when phenomena collide, merge, overlap, or superimpose into one point at the same instant of time. Chronometric events are separated by a nonzero distance and occur at the same coordinate time of a reference frame. Simultaneous events are witnessed identically by all observers, because a point is still a point with an instantaneous time within any reference frame. Chronometric events occur at identical coordinate times, but are usually not simultaneous, because the distances to convey the information to an observer are usually unequal so that arrival times are different. Einstein’s thought experiment to test simultaneity is explained by Newtonian physics without relativity. The mathematics concerning an embellishment of this thought experiment is derived. The contradictory results indicate the two relativity postulates should be revised to establish the correct equations in inertial frames to make identical predictions using the proper transformation.
Published in | International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (Volume 3, Issue 3) |
DOI | 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11 |
Page(s) | 43-49 |
Creative Commons |
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited. |
Copyright |
Copyright © The Author(s), 2017. Published by Science Publishing Group |
Simultaneity, Relativity, Inertial Frames, Speed of Light, Transformation
[1] | Einstein, A., The Meaning of Relativity, 5^{th} ed., MJF Books, (1954). |
[2] | Lorrain, P. & Corson, D. A., Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, W. H. Freeman and Company, 2^{nd} ed., (1970), p. 461. |
[3] | Deines, S. D. “Functional Basic Units of Physics and Reference Frames that Preserve Maxwell’s Equations”, IJAMTP, 2 (1), (2016). |
[4] | Serway, R. A. and Jewett Jr., J. W., Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Cengage Learning (2014), p. 1196-1198. |
[5] | Einstein, A., “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” Ann. Phys., 17, p. 549-560, (1905) [translated from Perrett, W., and Jeffery, G. B., in The Principle of Relativity: …, Metheuen, London, 1923]. |
[6] | Einstein, A., Relativity: the Special and the General Theory, (1916) reprinted Three Rivers Press, Random House Inc., 15th ed. (1961). |
[7] | Young, H. D., Adams, P. W. and Chastain, R. J., Sears and Zemansky’s College Physics, Pearson, (2016), 10th ed. |
[8] | Deines, S. D., “Timing in Simultaneity, Einstein’s Test Scenario, and Precise Clock Synchronization”, IJAMTP, 3 (1), (2017). |
[9] | Rindler, W., Special Relativity, University Mathematical Texts, Interscience Publishers Inc. (1966) reprinted by John Wiley & Sons (1969). |
[10] | Deines, S. D., “Vector Addition of Light Speed Versus the Hafele-Keating Time Dilation Test”, to be published in IJAMTP (2017). |
[11] | Deines, S. D., “Dichotomy between Length Contraction and Null Results from All Interferometer Experiments”, to be published in IJAMTP (2017). |
APA Style
Steven D. Deines. (2017). Simultaneity, Chronometrology, and the Two Postulates of Relativity. International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, 3(3), 43-49. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11
ACS Style
Steven D. Deines. Simultaneity, Chronometrology, and the Two Postulates of Relativity. Int. J. Appl. Math. Theor. Phys. 2017, 3(3), 43-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11
AMA Style
Steven D. Deines. Simultaneity, Chronometrology, and the Two Postulates of Relativity. Int J Appl Math Theor Phys. 2017;3(3):43-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11
@article{10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11, author = {Steven D. Deines}, title = {Simultaneity, Chronometrology, and the Two Postulates of Relativity}, journal = {International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics}, volume = {3}, number = {3}, pages = {43-49}, doi = {10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11}, url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11}, eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijamtp.20170303.11}, abstract = {Einstein gave examples whereby simultaneous events recorded by one inertial observer may not be simultaneous for other inertial observers. This paper eliminates a common misconception. Simultaneous events are confused with separated events occurring at the same coordinate time. Simultaneous events are witnessed by all observers, whether inertial or accelerated, because simultaneous events occur when phenomena collide, merge, overlap, or superimpose into one point at the same instant of time. Chronometric events are separated by a nonzero distance and occur at the same coordinate time of a reference frame. Simultaneous events are witnessed identically by all observers, because a point is still a point with an instantaneous time within any reference frame. Chronometric events occur at identical coordinate times, but are usually not simultaneous, because the distances to convey the information to an observer are usually unequal so that arrival times are different. Einstein’s thought experiment to test simultaneity is explained by Newtonian physics without relativity. The mathematics concerning an embellishment of this thought experiment is derived. The contradictory results indicate the two relativity postulates should be revised to establish the correct equations in inertial frames to make identical predictions using the proper transformation.}, year = {2017} }
TY - JOUR T1 - Simultaneity, Chronometrology, and the Two Postulates of Relativity AU - Steven D. Deines Y1 - 2017/05/06 PY - 2017 N1 - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11 DO - 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11 T2 - International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics JF - International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics JO - International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics SP - 43 EP - 49 PB - Science Publishing Group SN - 2575-5927 UR - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170303.11 AB - Einstein gave examples whereby simultaneous events recorded by one inertial observer may not be simultaneous for other inertial observers. This paper eliminates a common misconception. Simultaneous events are confused with separated events occurring at the same coordinate time. Simultaneous events are witnessed by all observers, whether inertial or accelerated, because simultaneous events occur when phenomena collide, merge, overlap, or superimpose into one point at the same instant of time. Chronometric events are separated by a nonzero distance and occur at the same coordinate time of a reference frame. Simultaneous events are witnessed identically by all observers, because a point is still a point with an instantaneous time within any reference frame. Chronometric events occur at identical coordinate times, but are usually not simultaneous, because the distances to convey the information to an observer are usually unequal so that arrival times are different. Einstein’s thought experiment to test simultaneity is explained by Newtonian physics without relativity. The mathematics concerning an embellishment of this thought experiment is derived. The contradictory results indicate the two relativity postulates should be revised to establish the correct equations in inertial frames to make identical predictions using the proper transformation. VL - 3 IS - 3 ER -