International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering

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Behaviour of Boiler Steel Exposed to Combustion Gases Containing Bromide and Chloride Additives

Received: 16 March 2014    Accepted: 17 July 2014    Published: 30 July 2014
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Abstract

Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants need to be reduced. In a coal-fired power plant, mercury enters the system primarily with the coal, and exits the system as bound particle compounds, soluble mercury or vapor-phase mercury. Oxidized mercury is effectively removed in wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbers – WFGD.one of the options for enhancing the process of mercury absorption is adding oxidizing agents such as bromide/bromine or chloride/chlorine. The present work describes simulation tests performed in order to evaluate the effect of bromide/chloride additions on the behavior of various steels under a combustion environment in a diesel fed steam boiler. The tested samples A209-T1A, A213-T11, A213-T22 and AISI 1020 were exposed at two locations in the boiler system: inside the flame chamber near the wall and in the middle of the stack at a temperature of 250- 300° C for 3 months. XRD and SEM techniques were used to analyze and to inspect the crystallographic structure. The results clearly show that high temperature interaction between the metal surface and the fire combustion products lead to the deposition of a protective layer composed mainly of CaSO4, FeSO4 and Fe3O4. Negligible weight loss was detected in all the tested cases. No harmful effect was detected in the presence of bromide, added as CaBr2, or chloride, added as CaCl2, to diesel fuel, up to a level of 1000 ppm.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11
Published in International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering (Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2014)
Page(s) 162-167
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Mercury Removal, Bromine, Steam Boiler Steel, Power Station, High Temperature Corrosion, Diffusion Barrier

References
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[3] Ye Zhuang, Chuanmin Chen, Ron Timple and John Pavlish, “Investigation on bromine corrosion associated with mercury control technologies in coal flue gas”, Fuel, vol 88, pp. 1692-1697,2009.
[4] Kellie, Cao Y, Duan Y, et, “Factors affecting mercury speciation in 100 MW coal-fired boiler with low-NOX burners”, Energy fuel, vol 19, pp. 800-6, 2005.
[5] Blythe G, Richardson C, Rhudy R. “Pilot evaluation of the catalytic oxidation of mercury for enhanced removal in wet FGD systems”. In: Proceedings of the air quality III: mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter conference, Arlington, VA, September, pp. 9–12, 2002.
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[7] Galbreath KC, Zygarlicke CJ, Tibbetts JE, Schulz RL, Dunham GE, “Effects of NOx, a-Fe2O3, c-Fe2O3, and HCl on mercury transformations in a 7-kW coal combustion system”, Fuel Process Technol, vol 86(4),pp. 429–48, 2005.
[8] Liu S, Yan N, Liu Z, Qu Z, et al, “Using bromine gas to enhance mercury removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants”, Environ Sci Technol, vol 41(4), pp. 1405–12, 2007.
[9] Cao Y, Gao Z, Zhu J, Wang Q, Huang Y, Chiu C, et al. “Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction(SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal”, Environ Sci Technol, vol 42(1), pp.256–61, 2008.
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[16] Nielsen HP, Frandsen FJ, Dam-Johansen K, Baxter LL, “The implications of chlorine-associated corrosion on the operation of biomass-fired boilers”, Progress Energy Combust Sci, vol 26(3), pp. 283–298,2000.
[17] Spiegel M, Zahs Aand Grabke HJ, “Fundamental aspects of chlorine-induced corrosion in power plants”, Mater High Temp, vol 20(2), pp.153–159, 2003.
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  • APA Style

    Vered Atiya Zuckerman, Rinat Ittah, Mira Freiberg Bergstein, David Itzhak. (2014). Behaviour of Boiler Steel Exposed to Combustion Gases Containing Bromide and Chloride Additives. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 3(4), 162-167. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11

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    ACS Style

    Vered Atiya Zuckerman; Rinat Ittah; Mira Freiberg Bergstein; David Itzhak. Behaviour of Boiler Steel Exposed to Combustion Gases Containing Bromide and Chloride Additives. Int. J. Energy Power Eng. 2014, 3(4), 162-167. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11

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    AMA Style

    Vered Atiya Zuckerman, Rinat Ittah, Mira Freiberg Bergstein, David Itzhak. Behaviour of Boiler Steel Exposed to Combustion Gases Containing Bromide and Chloride Additives. Int J Energy Power Eng. 2014;3(4):162-167. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11,
      author = {Vered Atiya Zuckerman and Rinat Ittah and Mira Freiberg Bergstein and David Itzhak},
      title = {Behaviour of Boiler Steel Exposed to Combustion Gases Containing Bromide and Chloride Additives},
      journal = {International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering},
      volume = {3},
      number = {4},
      pages = {162-167},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijepe.20140304.11},
      abstract = {Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants need to be reduced. In a coal-fired power plant, mercury enters the system primarily with the coal, and exits the system as bound particle compounds, soluble mercury or vapor-phase mercury.  Oxidized mercury is effectively removed in wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbers – WFGD.one of the options for enhancing the process of mercury absorption is adding oxidizing agents such as bromide/bromine or chloride/chlorine. The present work describes simulation tests performed in order to evaluate the effect of bromide/chloride additions on the behavior of various steels under a combustion environment in a diesel fed steam boiler. The tested samples A209-T1A, A213-T11, A213-T22 and AISI 1020 were exposed at two locations in the boiler system:  inside the flame chamber near the wall and in the middle of the stack at a temperature of 250- 300° C for 3 months. XRD and SEM techniques were used to analyze and to inspect the crystallographic structure. The results clearly show that high temperature interaction between the metal surface and the fire combustion products lead to the deposition of a protective layer composed mainly of CaSO4, FeSO4 and Fe3O4. Negligible weight loss was detected in all the tested cases. No harmful effect was detected in the presence of bromide, added as CaBr2, or chloride, added as CaCl2, to diesel fuel, up to a level of 1000 ppm.},
     year = {2014}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Behaviour of Boiler Steel Exposed to Combustion Gases Containing Bromide and Chloride Additives
    AU  - Vered Atiya Zuckerman
    AU  - Rinat Ittah
    AU  - Mira Freiberg Bergstein
    AU  - David Itzhak
    Y1  - 2014/07/30
    PY  - 2014
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11
    T2  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    JF  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    JO  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    SP  - 162
    EP  - 167
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2326-960X
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11
    AB  - Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants need to be reduced. In a coal-fired power plant, mercury enters the system primarily with the coal, and exits the system as bound particle compounds, soluble mercury or vapor-phase mercury.  Oxidized mercury is effectively removed in wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbers – WFGD.one of the options for enhancing the process of mercury absorption is adding oxidizing agents such as bromide/bromine or chloride/chlorine. The present work describes simulation tests performed in order to evaluate the effect of bromide/chloride additions on the behavior of various steels under a combustion environment in a diesel fed steam boiler. The tested samples A209-T1A, A213-T11, A213-T22 and AISI 1020 were exposed at two locations in the boiler system:  inside the flame chamber near the wall and in the middle of the stack at a temperature of 250- 300° C for 3 months. XRD and SEM techniques were used to analyze and to inspect the crystallographic structure. The results clearly show that high temperature interaction between the metal surface and the fire combustion products lead to the deposition of a protective layer composed mainly of CaSO4, FeSO4 and Fe3O4. Negligible weight loss was detected in all the tested cases. No harmful effect was detected in the presence of bromide, added as CaBr2, or chloride, added as CaCl2, to diesel fuel, up to a level of 1000 ppm.
    VL  - 3
    IS  - 4
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • ICL Industrial Products Ltd, Beer Sheva, Israel

  • ICL Industrial Products Ltd, Beer Sheva, Israel

  • ICL Industrial Products Ltd, Beer Sheva, Israel

  • Materials Engineering Department Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel

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