| Peer-Reviewed

Assessment on Passive Cooling Techniques to Improve Steel Roof Thermal Performance in Hot Tropical Climate

Received: 25 November 2014    Accepted: 9 December 2014    Published: 18 December 2014
Views:       Downloads:
Abstract

In African hot tropical climate countries, due to climate and the unsuitability of construction materials, building’s indoor environment remains over the thermal comfort acceptable limit over long periods of time during the year. Among the building envelope components, roof is a critical part that is highly susceptible to solar radiation. Solutions like passive cooling and low energy consumption systems are not explored enough in those countries. These techniques and systems can be used to meet a large part of the cooling needs and reduce the overheating period in buildings, but their applicability depends on the climate zone. In this paper, investigations were conducted to determine their potential to improve steel roof performance for free running buildings under tropical climatic conditions. The case studies are two configurations (with and without attic) of typical steel roof in Burkina Faso. Using dynamic simulation, we have evaluated the impacts of radiant barrier, insulation, cool paint and ventilation for two configuration of roofing. For both configurations, high reflective solutions perform very well. It also appears that the attic case due to its actual configuration (shape and design) and to the climate conditions ventilation does not perform very well. These results can help building actors during the design process.

Published in International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering (Volume 3, Issue 6)
DOI 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12
Page(s) 287-295
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Free Running Building, Passive Cooling, Cool Roof, Steel Roof, Hot Tropical Climate

References
[1] Ajibola, K., Ventilation of spaces in a warm-humid climate-case study of some housing types. Renewable Energy, 1997. 10 (1): p. 61–70.
[2] Kisanga, A.U., The challenge faced by the building materials industries in the developing countries in the 1990s: with special reference to Tanzania. Habitat International, 1990. 14(4): p. 119-132.
[3] Moriarty, P., The case for traditional housing in tropical Africa. Habitat International, 1979. 4(3): p. 285-290.
[4] Zhai, Z. and J.M. Previtali, Ancient vernacular architecture: characteristics categorization and energy performance evaluation. Energy and Buildings, 2010. 42(3): p. 357-365.
[5] Nahar, N.M., P. Sharma, and M.M. Purohit, Performance of different passive techniques for cooling of buildings in arid regions. Building and Environment, 2003. 38(1): p. 109-116.
[6] Nahar, N.M., P. Sharma, and M.M. Purohit, Studies on solar passive cooling techniques for arid areas. Energy Conversion and Management, 1999. 40(1): p. 89-95.
[7] Akbari, H., Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofs in two small non-residential buildings. Energy, 2003. 28(9): p. 953-967.
[8] Bozonnet, E., M. Doya, and F. Allard, Cool roofs impact on building thermal response: A French case study. Energy and Buildings, 2011. 43(11): p. 3006-3012.
[9] Hernández-Pérez, I., et al., Thermal performance of reflective materials applied to exterior building components—A review. Energy and Buildings, 2014. 80(0): p. 81-105.
[10] Synnefa, A., M. Santamouris, and H. Akbari, Estimating the effect of using cool coatings on energy loads and thermal comfort in residential buildings in various climatic conditions. Energy and Buildings, 2007. 39(11): p. 1167-1174.
[11] Sanjai, N. and P. Chand Passive cooling techniques in buildings: past and present a review. ARISER 4, 2008: p. 37–46.
[12] Susanti, L., H. Homma, and H. Matsumoto, A naturally ventilated cavity roof as potential benefits for improving thermal environment and cooling load of a factory building. Energy and Buildings, 2011. 43(1): p. 211-218.
[13] Haberl, J.S.C., S., Literature Review of Uncertainty of Analysis Methods (Cool Roofs), Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. 2004.
[14] Özdeniz, M.B. and P. Hançer, Suitable roof constructions for warm climates - Gazimagusa case. Energy and Buildings, 2005. 37(6): p. 643-649.
[15] ASTM, ASTM: C1313/C1313M–10. Standard Specification for Sheet Radiant Barriers for Building Construction Applications in 2010.
[16] Mitchell, R., et al., RESFEN 3.1: A PC Program for Calculating the Heating and Cooling Energy Use of Windows in Residential Buildings. 1999.
[17] Iwaro, Joseph, and Abraham Mwasha. 2010. “A review of building energy regulation and policy for energy conservation in developing countries.” Energy Policy 38 (12) : 7744 – 7755. Special Section : Carbon Reduction at Community Scale.
[18] Crawley, D.B., et al., EnergyPlus: creating a new-generation building energy simulation program. Energy and Buildings, 2001. 33(4): p. 319-331.
[19] Perez, R., et al., Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance. Solar Energy, 1990. 44(5): p. 271-289.
[20] EnergyPlus, EnergyPlus engineering reference: the reference to EnergyPlus calculations, 2013, Berkeley, CA: Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
[21] F. Allard, M.S., Natural Ventilation in Buildings: A Design Handbook. Vol. Earthscan. 1998: James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd.J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68–73.
[22] ASHRAE, Chapter 24 airflow around buildingsS, in ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (SI Edition)2009, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
[23] Awbi, H.B., Design considerations for naturally ventilated buildings. Renewable Energy, 1994. 5(5–8): p. 1081-1090.
[24] Modelisar, Functional Mock-up Interface for Co-Simulation Modelisar (ITEA 2 07006). 2010.
[25] Nouidui, T., M. Wetter, and W. Zuo, Functional mock-up unit for co-simulation import in EnergyPlus. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2014. 7(3): p. 192-202.
[26] ASHRAE, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, Chapter 13: Indoor environmental modeling., 2009, ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers).
Cite This Article
  • APA Style

    Madi Kabore, Etienne Wurtz, Yézouma Coulibaly, Adamah Messan, Patrice Moreaux. (2014). Assessment on Passive Cooling Techniques to Improve Steel Roof Thermal Performance in Hot Tropical Climate. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 3(6), 287-295. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12

    Copy | Download

    ACS Style

    Madi Kabore; Etienne Wurtz; Yézouma Coulibaly; Adamah Messan; Patrice Moreaux. Assessment on Passive Cooling Techniques to Improve Steel Roof Thermal Performance in Hot Tropical Climate. Int. J. Energy Power Eng. 2014, 3(6), 287-295. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12

    Copy | Download

    AMA Style

    Madi Kabore, Etienne Wurtz, Yézouma Coulibaly, Adamah Messan, Patrice Moreaux. Assessment on Passive Cooling Techniques to Improve Steel Roof Thermal Performance in Hot Tropical Climate. Int J Energy Power Eng. 2014;3(6):287-295. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12

    Copy | Download

  • @article{10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12,
      author = {Madi Kabore and Etienne Wurtz and Yézouma Coulibaly and Adamah Messan and Patrice Moreaux},
      title = {Assessment on Passive Cooling Techniques to Improve Steel Roof Thermal Performance in Hot Tropical Climate},
      journal = {International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering},
      volume = {3},
      number = {6},
      pages = {287-295},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijepe.20140306.12},
      abstract = {In African hot tropical climate countries, due to climate and the unsuitability of construction materials, building’s indoor environment remains over the thermal comfort acceptable limit over long periods of time during the year. Among the building envelope components, roof is a critical part that is highly susceptible to solar radiation. Solutions like passive cooling and low energy consumption systems are not explored enough in those countries. These techniques and systems can be used to meet a large part of the cooling needs and reduce the overheating period in buildings, but their applicability depends on the climate zone. In this paper, investigations were conducted to determine their potential to improve steel roof performance for free running buildings under tropical climatic conditions. The case studies are two configurations (with and without attic) of typical steel roof in Burkina Faso. Using dynamic simulation, we have evaluated the impacts of radiant barrier, insulation, cool paint and ventilation for two configuration of roofing. For both configurations, high reflective solutions perform very well. It also appears that the attic case due to its actual configuration (shape and design) and to the climate conditions ventilation does not perform very well. These results can help building actors during the design process.},
     year = {2014}
    }
    

    Copy | Download

  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Assessment on Passive Cooling Techniques to Improve Steel Roof Thermal Performance in Hot Tropical Climate
    AU  - Madi Kabore
    AU  - Etienne Wurtz
    AU  - Yézouma Coulibaly
    AU  - Adamah Messan
    AU  - Patrice Moreaux
    Y1  - 2014/12/18
    PY  - 2014
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12
    T2  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    JF  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    JO  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    SP  - 287
    EP  - 295
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2326-960X
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20140306.12
    AB  - In African hot tropical climate countries, due to climate and the unsuitability of construction materials, building’s indoor environment remains over the thermal comfort acceptable limit over long periods of time during the year. Among the building envelope components, roof is a critical part that is highly susceptible to solar radiation. Solutions like passive cooling and low energy consumption systems are not explored enough in those countries. These techniques and systems can be used to meet a large part of the cooling needs and reduce the overheating period in buildings, but their applicability depends on the climate zone. In this paper, investigations were conducted to determine their potential to improve steel roof performance for free running buildings under tropical climatic conditions. The case studies are two configurations (with and without attic) of typical steel roof in Burkina Faso. Using dynamic simulation, we have evaluated the impacts of radiant barrier, insulation, cool paint and ventilation for two configuration of roofing. For both configurations, high reflective solutions perform very well. It also appears that the attic case due to its actual configuration (shape and design) and to the climate conditions ventilation does not perform very well. These results can help building actors during the design process.
    VL  - 3
    IS  - 6
    ER  - 

    Copy | Download

Author Information
  • International institute for water and environmental engineering (2iE), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; University Savoie Mont Blanc, Chambéry, France

  • University Grenoble Alpes, INES, Le Bourget du Lac, France

  • International institute for water and environmental engineering (2iE), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

  • International institute for water and environmental engineering (2iE), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

  • University Savoie Mont Blanc, Chambéry, France

  • Sections