International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering

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Optimum Design of Penstock for Hydro Projects

Received: 1 June 2015    Accepted: 11 July 2015    Published: 29 July 2015
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Abstract

Penstock, a closed conduit, is an important component of hydropower projects. Various methods are available for optimum design of penstock. These methods are either based on empirical relations or derived analytically by optimizing the friction loss in the penstock. These formulae produce different values of penstock diameter for same site. In this study, formulae available for penstock design have been compared to review their suitability. A new method has been developed for the optimum design of penstock based on minimizing the total head loss comprising of friction and other losses. By using new developed method, diameter and annual cost of penstocks for few Hydro Electric plants of varying capacity have been worked out and reduction in annual cost of penstocks have been found in comparison to penstock cost for these projects.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijepe.20150404.14
Published in International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering (Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2015)
Page(s) 216-226
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Friction Losses, Total Head Losses, Annualized Penstock Cost, Optimum Diameter of Penstock

References
[1] Colebrook, C.F. and White, C.M. (1937) “Experiments with Fluid Friction in Roughened Pipes”, Proc. Roy. Soc. Series A, 161, 367.
[2] Colebrook, C.F. and White, C.M. (1937-38) “The Reduction of Carrying Capacity of Pipes with Age”, J. Inst. C.E., 7, 99.
[3] Colebrook C.F. (1939) “Turbulent flow in pipes with particular reference to the transition region between the smooth and rough pipe laws”, J Inst Civil Engineers, London, Vol. 11, pp. 133-156.
[4] Fahlbusch, F.(1982) “power tunnels and penstock the economics re-examined” International Water power and dam construction, Vol. 34 no 6, June 1982, pp 13-15.
[5] Fablbusch F (1987), “Determining Diameters for Power Tunnels ad Pressure Shafts” Water Power and Dam Construction February 1987.
[6] Indian Standard:11625-1986(2001); “Criteria for Hydraulic Design of Penstock”. Bureau of Indian Standards, Delhi PP-16
[7] Manning, R. (1891) “On the Flow of Water in Open Channels and Pipes” Trans. Inst. C.E. of Ireland, 20, 161.
[8] Moody L.F. (1944) “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow” Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 66(8), pp. 671–684.
[9] Nikuradse, J. (1933) “Stroemungsgesetze in rauhen Rohren.” Ver. Dtsch. Ing. Forsch., 361, 1933
[10] Gordon, J.L., (1978), “Design criteria for exposed hydro penstock” Canadian Journal of civil Engineering, 5, pp, 340 – 351.
[11] Sarkaria, G.S. (1957), “Penstocks sized Quickly” Engineering News Record, Aug.15, 1957, pp 78-79.
[12] Sarkaria G.S (1979), “Economic Penstock Diameter: A 20-year Review” Water Power and Dam Construction November 1979.
[13] ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 79, (1993), Steel Penstocks, ASCE, American Society of civil Engineers, New York, 1993
[14] Scobey F.C. (1930), “ The flow of water in Riveted and analogous pipes”, Vol 150, USDA, Washington, DC, 45
[15] Swamee P.K. and Jain A.K. (1976) “Explicit equations for pipe-flow problems” Journal of the Hydraulics Division (ASCE), Vol 102 (5), pp. 657–664.
[16] Voetsch Charles and Fresen M.H (1938),”Economic Diameter of Steel Penstock” ASCE Transaction Vol 103, paper no 1982.
[17] USBR, Engineering Monogram No. 3 (1986), Welded Steel Penstocks, United States Department of The interior Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, 1986.
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    Singhal M. K., Arun Kumar. (2015). Optimum Design of Penstock for Hydro Projects. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 4(4), 216-226. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20150404.14

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    ACS Style

    Singhal M. K.; Arun Kumar. Optimum Design of Penstock for Hydro Projects. Int. J. Energy Power Eng. 2015, 4(4), 216-226. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20150404.14

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    AMA Style

    Singhal M. K., Arun Kumar. Optimum Design of Penstock for Hydro Projects. Int J Energy Power Eng. 2015;4(4):216-226. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20150404.14

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijepe.20150404.14,
      author = {Singhal M. K. and Arun Kumar},
      title = {Optimum Design of Penstock for Hydro Projects},
      journal = {International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering},
      volume = {4},
      number = {4},
      pages = {216-226},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijepe.20150404.14},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20150404.14},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijepe.20150404.14},
      abstract = {Penstock, a closed conduit, is an important component of hydropower projects. Various methods are available for optimum design of penstock. These methods are either based on empirical relations or derived analytically by optimizing the friction loss in the penstock. These formulae produce different values of penstock diameter for same site. In this study, formulae available for penstock design have been compared to review their suitability. A new method has been developed for the optimum design of penstock based on minimizing the total head loss comprising of friction and other losses. By using new developed method, diameter and annual cost of penstocks for few Hydro Electric plants of varying capacity have been worked out and reduction in annual cost of penstocks have been found in comparison to penstock cost for these projects.},
     year = {2015}
    }
    

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    AB  - Penstock, a closed conduit, is an important component of hydropower projects. Various methods are available for optimum design of penstock. These methods are either based on empirical relations or derived analytically by optimizing the friction loss in the penstock. These formulae produce different values of penstock diameter for same site. In this study, formulae available for penstock design have been compared to review their suitability. A new method has been developed for the optimum design of penstock based on minimizing the total head loss comprising of friction and other losses. By using new developed method, diameter and annual cost of penstocks for few Hydro Electric plants of varying capacity have been worked out and reduction in annual cost of penstocks have been found in comparison to penstock cost for these projects.
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Author Information
  • AHEC, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India

  • AHEC, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India

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