International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering

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Survey on the Use of Energy in Ovens for Baking Bread in North Central Nigeria

Received: 24 May 2021    Accepted: 4 June 2021    Published: 21 June 2021
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Abstract

Bread is a staple food prepared from flour and water, usually by baking. In Africa, bread is the most consumed food, but are not mostly baked according to standards. This investigation was aimed at finding out the use of different sources of energy, temperature, and time of baking in bakeries and to determine suitable empirical parameters for the construction of dual powered automated oven for baking bread. Some major bread consuming local governments were selected in the states of Benue and Nasarawa. Gboko, Otukpo and Makurdi were the local governments selected in Benue state where 10 questionnaires were administered in each local government by direct delivery. Lafia, Akwanga and Keffi local governments’ areas were selected in Nasarawa State where 10 questionnaires were also served. they were retrieved after being filled by respective respondents and the data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and ANOVA. The mean temperature was estimated to be 179.38±19.90°C in Benue state and 153.13±19.90°C in Nasarawa State. The mean time of baking was found to be 29.06±19.90min in Benue state and 27.50±1.12min in Nasarawa state. The temperature and time in both states are not significantly different at (p<0.05). The energy sources in percentage in Benue state were estimated to be 70%, 3%, 7%, 17%, 3% and 0% for wood/charcoal, gas, electricity, electricity versus gas (separated), and dual powered of electricity and gas respectively. In Nasarawa state, the sources of energy were found to be 47%, 30%, 3%, 13%, 7% and 0% for wood/charcoal, gas, electricity, electricity versus gas (separated), charcoal versus gas (separated) and dual powered of electricity and gas respectively. The mean cost of energy consumption in both states were estimated to be N8218.75±720.16and N4625.00 ±720in Benue and Nasarawa state and the cost of energy consumption are significantly different at (P<0.05) respectively. The results show that no bakery in both states uses dual automated oven for baking bread. A mean temperature of 166.26±19.90°C and mean time of 28.28±1.12minutes was established for North-Central Nigeria and could stand as a standard for the construction of dual automated oven for baking bread.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11
Published in International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering (Volume 10, Issue 3, May 2021)
Page(s) 50-56
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Survey, Baking Bread, Energy Sources, Temperature and Time, Oven, North-Central

References
[1] Armando Manhiça, Fabião/ Lucas, Carlos/ Richards, Tobias (2012): Wood consumption and analysis of the bread baking process in wood-fired bakery oven. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 47,5 December 2012, P. 63-72.
[2] Komlaga G. A, Glover-Amengor M., Dziedzoave N. T. Hagan L. L., (2012). Consumer acceptability of wheat cassava composite bread, World Rur. Observatory, p. 78-81.
[3] Basil E., Blessant J (2014)” Development and Application of a Uniform Testing procedure for ovens, Pacific Gas and Electric” Company Department of Research and Development Report, 2014, 4, p. 10-25.
[4] Aborisade D. O., Adewuyi P. A. (2014). Evaluation of PID Tuning Methods on Direct Gas Fire Oven, International. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, p. 1-9.
[5] Ogunjobi M. A., Ogunwole S. O. (2010). Physiochemical and sensory properties of cassava flour biscuits supplemented with cashew apple powder, Journal of Food Technology. p. 24-29.
[6] NBS (National Bureau of Statistics) (2016). www.google.com. Retrieved 15th August 2020.
[7] NPC (National Population Commission of Nigeria) (2016). www.wikipedia.com. Retrieved 12thAugust 2020.
[8] NAGIS (Nasarawa Geographical Information System) (2012). www.wikipedia.com Retrieved 11thJuly 2020.
[9] Babalola Folarin, Opii Egbe Emmanuel (2015) “Charcoal Versus other Domestic cooking fuel: Survey of factors influencing consumption in selected households of Benue state. Nigeria. International Journal of Organic Agriculture Research and Development Volume 6 (Sep. 2012).
[10] Ogara Janet Isaac (2011) “Preliminary Studies on Charcoal Production and Producers Knowledge of Environment Hazard in Nasarawa State.
[11] ILO (International Labour Organization) (2011) “Encyclopedia of Occupational Healtha nd Safety” wwww.google.com Retrieved 12th August, 2020.
[12] Amy North (2018) “Bakers at Risk for Heat Related Health Problem” British Bakers, 2018.
[13] Javier Martinez-Monzo, P. Garcia-Segoria, Jose Albors (2013) “Trends and Innovation in bread, bakery and Pastry. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology.
[14] Shittu. Taofeek A. O Raji and L. O Sani (2007) “Bread from Composite cassava wheat flour effect of baking time and temperature on some physical properties. Journal of Food Research International 40 (2007) 280–290.
[15] Bojana. M. Šarić*, Nataša M. Nedeljković, Olivera D. Šimurina, Mladenka V. Pestorić, Jovana J. Kos, Anamarija I. Mandić, Marijana B. Sakaĉ, Ljubiša Ć. Šarić, ĐorĊeB. Psodorov, Aleksandra Ĉ. Mišan (2014) “The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomade”. Food and Feed Research. Journal of the Institute of Food Technology in Novi Sad.
[16] Earnest Orlando Lawrence (2012) “Energy efficiency improvement and cost savings opportunities for the bakery industry. US Department of Energy office of Scientific and Technical Information. United States Environmental Protection Agency 2012.
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    Adamu Cornelius Smah, Ijabo Oga Joshua, Obetta Samuel Enyi. (2021). Survey on the Use of Energy in Ovens for Baking Bread in North Central Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 10(3), 50-56. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11

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    ACS Style

    Adamu Cornelius Smah; Ijabo Oga Joshua; Obetta Samuel Enyi. Survey on the Use of Energy in Ovens for Baking Bread in North Central Nigeria. Int. J. Energy Power Eng. 2021, 10(3), 50-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11

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    AMA Style

    Adamu Cornelius Smah, Ijabo Oga Joshua, Obetta Samuel Enyi. Survey on the Use of Energy in Ovens for Baking Bread in North Central Nigeria. Int J Energy Power Eng. 2021;10(3):50-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11,
      author = {Adamu Cornelius Smah and Ijabo Oga Joshua and Obetta Samuel Enyi},
      title = {Survey on the Use of Energy in Ovens for Baking Bread in North Central Nigeria},
      journal = {International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {50-56},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijepe.20211003.11},
      abstract = {Bread is a staple food prepared from flour and water, usually by baking. In Africa, bread is the most consumed food, but are not mostly baked according to standards. This investigation was aimed at finding out the use of different sources of energy, temperature, and time of baking in bakeries and to determine suitable empirical parameters for the construction of dual powered automated oven for baking bread. Some major bread consuming local governments were selected in the states of Benue and Nasarawa. Gboko, Otukpo and Makurdi were the local governments selected in Benue state where 10 questionnaires were administered in each local government by direct delivery. Lafia, Akwanga and Keffi local governments’ areas were selected in Nasarawa State where 10 questionnaires were also served. they were retrieved after being filled by respective respondents and the data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and ANOVA. The mean temperature was estimated to be 179.38±19.90°C in Benue state and 153.13±19.90°C in Nasarawa State. The mean time of baking was found to be 29.06±19.90min in Benue state and 27.50±1.12min in Nasarawa state. The temperature and time in both states are not significantly different at (p<0.05). The energy sources in percentage in Benue state were estimated to be 70%, 3%, 7%, 17%, 3% and 0% for wood/charcoal, gas, electricity, electricity versus gas (separated), and dual powered of electricity and gas respectively. In Nasarawa state, the sources of energy were found to be 47%, 30%, 3%, 13%, 7% and 0% for wood/charcoal, gas, electricity, electricity versus gas (separated), charcoal versus gas (separated) and dual powered of electricity and gas respectively. The mean cost of energy consumption in both states were estimated to be N8218.75±720.16and N4625.00 ±720in Benue and Nasarawa state and the cost of energy consumption are significantly different at (P<0.05) respectively. The results show that no bakery in both states uses dual automated oven for baking bread. A mean temperature of 166.26±19.90°C and mean time of 28.28±1.12minutes was established for North-Central Nigeria and could stand as a standard for the construction of dual automated oven for baking bread.},
     year = {2021}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Survey on the Use of Energy in Ovens for Baking Bread in North Central Nigeria
    AU  - Adamu Cornelius Smah
    AU  - Ijabo Oga Joshua
    AU  - Obetta Samuel Enyi
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    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11
    T2  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    JF  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    JO  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
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    EP  - 56
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2326-960X
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.20211003.11
    AB  - Bread is a staple food prepared from flour and water, usually by baking. In Africa, bread is the most consumed food, but are not mostly baked according to standards. This investigation was aimed at finding out the use of different sources of energy, temperature, and time of baking in bakeries and to determine suitable empirical parameters for the construction of dual powered automated oven for baking bread. Some major bread consuming local governments were selected in the states of Benue and Nasarawa. Gboko, Otukpo and Makurdi were the local governments selected in Benue state where 10 questionnaires were administered in each local government by direct delivery. Lafia, Akwanga and Keffi local governments’ areas were selected in Nasarawa State where 10 questionnaires were also served. they were retrieved after being filled by respective respondents and the data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and ANOVA. The mean temperature was estimated to be 179.38±19.90°C in Benue state and 153.13±19.90°C in Nasarawa State. The mean time of baking was found to be 29.06±19.90min in Benue state and 27.50±1.12min in Nasarawa state. The temperature and time in both states are not significantly different at (p<0.05). The energy sources in percentage in Benue state were estimated to be 70%, 3%, 7%, 17%, 3% and 0% for wood/charcoal, gas, electricity, electricity versus gas (separated), and dual powered of electricity and gas respectively. In Nasarawa state, the sources of energy were found to be 47%, 30%, 3%, 13%, 7% and 0% for wood/charcoal, gas, electricity, electricity versus gas (separated), charcoal versus gas (separated) and dual powered of electricity and gas respectively. The mean cost of energy consumption in both states were estimated to be N8218.75±720.16and N4625.00 ±720in Benue and Nasarawa state and the cost of energy consumption are significantly different at (P<0.05) respectively. The results show that no bakery in both states uses dual automated oven for baking bread. A mean temperature of 166.26±19.90°C and mean time of 28.28±1.12minutes was established for North-Central Nigeria and could stand as a standard for the construction of dual automated oven for baking bread.
    VL  - 10
    IS  - 3
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

  • Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

  • Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

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