### Pressure Energy, Resistance and Reactance in Fluid Leak & Flow

Received: 22 June 2016    Accepted: 25 June 2016    Published: 24 August 2016
Abstract

The fluid current in a fluid circuit, corresponding to the electrical current in an electrical circuit, is determined by a fluid pressure corresponding to electrical pressure (voltage), and a fluid impedance corresponding to electrical impedance, and directly proportional to the fluid pressure and inversely proportional to the fluid impedance between two ends of the fluid circuit. The fluid impedance is the algebraic sum of the fluid resistance and the fluid reactance between the two ends. Fluid resistance is a physical quantity for measuring the peripheral resistance of a fluid current; fluid reactance, a physical quantity for measuring the front resistance of a fluid current; and leak resistance, a physical quantity for measuring the tightness of a seal. The three quantities have an identical measuring unit, indicating the sustained fluid pressure needed for a unit of fluid currents, or for a unit cubage of fluids for a unit of time, to flow through a fluid resistance, a fluid reactance or a leak resistance, and so (the current) x (the resistance) = (the pressure energy consumed by the resistance), (the current) x (the reactance) = (the pressure energy converted into the kinetic energy by the reactance), (the current) x (the leak resistance) = (the pressure energy consumed by the leak resistance), and (the current) x (the resistance + the reactance) = (the general pressure needed for a fluid current to flow through a fluid circuit). A leak path of seals, almost with kinetic energy negligible, can be considered a typical fluid circuit without any fluid reactance. Reactance of piping is from its each bore-changing passage or port. Reactance from reducing passages or ports is positive, and reactance from enlarging passages or ports is negative. A fluid current flowing past a moving object is equivalent to the one flowing in a pipe's wall-bulged passage whose corresponding right inclusion body has the same axis, generatrix and volume as the object's has. The fluid currents flowing over and under a wing are equivalent to the ones flowing in two parallel contiguous pipe lengths that are placed one under the other and use the length of the wing chord plane as the circumference of their cylindrical inlet and outlet walls, and use the upper and lower average curve surfaces of the wing separately as their upper and lower curve walls. The lift of the wing is from the inner pressure difference of the two pipe lengths.

Keywords

pressure energy, pressure's sustainability, tightness, leak resistance, fluid resistance, fluid reactance

References
 [1] Hagen-Poiseuille equation. The Free Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagen–Poiseuille_equation [2] Darcy's law. The Free Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darcy's_law [3] ISO 19879-2005, Metallic tube connections for fluid power and general use —Test methods for hydraulic fluid power connections [S] [4] ISO 5208-2008, Industrial valves — Pressure testing of metallic valves [S] [5] XU Changxiang. Definition, Quantifying and Gauging of Tightness. Petro-Chemical Equipment, 2014, 43(3):11-14 [6] DING Zurong. Fluid Mechanics: Volume I [M]. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2004) [7] Bernoulli's principle. The Free Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli%27s_principle [8] Poiseuille's Law. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition. http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Poiseuille's+law [9] XU Changxiang. XU's Sealing Theory and Rectangular & O-Shaped Ring Seals [J]. Petro-Chemical Equipment, 2013, 42(2): 78-85. [10] XU Changxiang. XU's Designs and Parameters for Sealing Elements [J]. Petro-Chemical Equipment, 2013, 42(3): 58-63.
• APA Style

Xu Changxiang, Zhang Xiaozhong, Chen Youjun. (2016). Pressure Energy, Resistance and Reactance in Fluid Leak & Flow. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 5(4-1), 22-30. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13

ACS Style

Xu Changxiang; Zhang Xiaozhong; Chen Youjun. Pressure Energy, Resistance and Reactance in Fluid Leak & Flow. Int. J. Energy Power Eng. 2016, 5(4-1), 22-30. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13

AMA Style

Xu Changxiang, Zhang Xiaozhong, Chen Youjun. Pressure Energy, Resistance and Reactance in Fluid Leak & Flow. Int J Energy Power Eng. 2016;5(4-1):22-30. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13

• ```@article{10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13,
author = {Xu Changxiang and Zhang Xiaozhong and Chen Youjun},
title = {Pressure Energy, Resistance and Reactance in Fluid Leak & Flow},
journal = {International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering},
volume = {5},
number = {4-1},
pages = {22-30},
doi = {10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13},
url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13},
eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13},
abstract = {The fluid current in a fluid circuit, corresponding to the electrical current in an electrical circuit, is determined by a fluid pressure corresponding to electrical pressure (voltage), and a fluid impedance corresponding to electrical impedance, and directly proportional to the fluid pressure and inversely proportional to the fluid impedance between two ends of the fluid circuit. The fluid impedance is the algebraic sum of the fluid resistance and the fluid reactance between the two ends. Fluid resistance is a physical quantity for measuring the peripheral resistance of a fluid current; fluid reactance, a physical quantity for measuring the front resistance of a fluid current; and leak resistance, a physical quantity for measuring the tightness of a seal. The three quantities have an identical measuring unit, indicating the sustained fluid pressure needed for a unit of fluid currents, or for a unit cubage of fluids for a unit of time, to flow through a fluid resistance, a fluid reactance or a leak resistance, and so (the current) x (the resistance) = (the pressure energy consumed by the resistance), (the current) x (the reactance) = (the pressure energy converted into the kinetic energy by the reactance), (the current) x (the leak resistance) = (the pressure energy consumed by the leak resistance), and (the current) x (the resistance + the reactance) = (the general pressure needed for a fluid current to flow through a fluid circuit). A leak path of seals, almost with kinetic energy negligible, can be considered a typical fluid circuit without any fluid reactance. Reactance of piping is from its each bore-changing passage or port. Reactance from reducing passages or ports is positive, and reactance from enlarging passages or ports is negative. A fluid current flowing past a moving object is equivalent to the one flowing in a pipe's wall-bulged passage whose corresponding right inclusion body has the same axis, generatrix and volume as the object's has. The fluid currents flowing over and under a wing are equivalent to the ones flowing in two parallel contiguous pipe lengths that are placed one under the other and use the length of the wing chord plane as the circumference of their cylindrical inlet and outlet walls, and use the upper and lower average curve surfaces of the wing separately as their upper and lower curve walls. The lift of the wing is from the inner pressure difference of the two pipe lengths.},
year = {2016}
}
```
• ```TY  - JOUR
T1  - Pressure Energy, Resistance and Reactance in Fluid Leak & Flow
AU  - Xu Changxiang
AU  - Zhang Xiaozhong
AU  - Chen Youjun
Y1  - 2016/08/24
PY  - 2016
N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13
DO  - 10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13
T2  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
JF  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
JO  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
SP  - 22
EP  - 30
PB  - Science Publishing Group
SN  - 2326-960X
UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.13
AB  - The fluid current in a fluid circuit, corresponding to the electrical current in an electrical circuit, is determined by a fluid pressure corresponding to electrical pressure (voltage), and a fluid impedance corresponding to electrical impedance, and directly proportional to the fluid pressure and inversely proportional to the fluid impedance between two ends of the fluid circuit. The fluid impedance is the algebraic sum of the fluid resistance and the fluid reactance between the two ends. Fluid resistance is a physical quantity for measuring the peripheral resistance of a fluid current; fluid reactance, a physical quantity for measuring the front resistance of a fluid current; and leak resistance, a physical quantity for measuring the tightness of a seal. The three quantities have an identical measuring unit, indicating the sustained fluid pressure needed for a unit of fluid currents, or for a unit cubage of fluids for a unit of time, to flow through a fluid resistance, a fluid reactance or a leak resistance, and so (the current) x (the resistance) = (the pressure energy consumed by the resistance), (the current) x (the reactance) = (the pressure energy converted into the kinetic energy by the reactance), (the current) x (the leak resistance) = (the pressure energy consumed by the leak resistance), and (the current) x (the resistance + the reactance) = (the general pressure needed for a fluid current to flow through a fluid circuit). A leak path of seals, almost with kinetic energy negligible, can be considered a typical fluid circuit without any fluid reactance. Reactance of piping is from its each bore-changing passage or port. Reactance from reducing passages or ports is positive, and reactance from enlarging passages or ports is negative. A fluid current flowing past a moving object is equivalent to the one flowing in a pipe's wall-bulged passage whose corresponding right inclusion body has the same axis, generatrix and volume as the object's has. The fluid currents flowing over and under a wing are equivalent to the ones flowing in two parallel contiguous pipe lengths that are placed one under the other and use the length of the wing chord plane as the circumference of their cylindrical inlet and outlet walls, and use the upper and lower average curve surfaces of the wing separately as their upper and lower curve walls. The lift of the wing is from the inner pressure difference of the two pipe lengths.
VL  - 5
IS  - 4-1
ER  - ```
Author Information
• Baoyi Group Co. Ltd., Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325105, China

• Baoyi Group Co. Ltd., Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325105, China

• Baoyi Group Co. Ltd., Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325105, China

• Sections