International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering

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Xu's Designs and Parameters for Sealing Elements

Received: 22 June 2016    Accepted: 25 June 2016    Published: 24 August 2016
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Abstract

Any leak-free achievement needs a sealing surface that has microcosmic irregularities fully complementary to a surface to be sealed and that can be qualified only by compressive working or installing in position. ASME Code mistakes the working stress needed to result in a qualified gasket in installation for the stress needed to enable a qualified gasket to function well or maintain its leak-free connection, and only considers the influence of the sealing material's strength but never its elasticity on sealing. Undoubtedly, ASME Code's leak-free Maintenance Factor m and Minimum Necessary Sealing Stress y of gaskets are both wrong in values. Similarly, neither is the gasket parameters system substituted for the gasket factors m and y by PVRC and EN 13555. Actually, the stronger the strength and the elasticity of a sealing contact layer, the more difficult for its sealing element to create or maintain a fully deformed contact; whereas the stronger the strength and the elasticity of a contact layer substrate, the easier for its sealing element to create or maintain a fully deformed contact; i.e. the index used to measure the difficulty for a sealing element to create or maintain a leak-free connection is its sealing difficulty factor m1 = its contact's elastic modulus Ec/its substrate's elastic modulus Es; so it is the most difficult for a rubber element to create or maintain a leak-free connection because its m1 ≡ 1, the easiest for a grease coating because its m1 = 0, and easier for the other sealing elements than for a rubber element because their m1 can be made smaller than 1 (or m1 < 1) by designing and coating.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15
Published in International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering (Volume 5, Issue 4-1, July 2016)

This article belongs to the Special Issue Xu’s Sealing and Flowing Theories of Fluids

Page(s) 35-42
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Minimum necessary sealing stress y, Sealing difficulty factor m1, Leak-Free maintenance factor m2

References
[1] ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Division 1, Section VIII, Appendix 2 Rules for Bolted Flange Connections with Ring Type Gaskets [S].
[2] Garlock Technical Manual (GMG 1-11). http://www.garlock.com/en/ http://www.novatec.cr/Garlock-Empaq-Sellos/Juntas_laminados/Graphonic_Manual_tecnico.pdf
[3] Garlock Metallic Gasket Catalog (GMG 1-1) http://www.garlock.com/en/product/graphonic-metallic-gasket http://galloup.com/downloads/garlock_metallic_gasket_catalog.pdf
[4] ASTM WK10193 New Recommended Practice for Gasket Constants for Bolted Joint Design [S].
[5] CETIM Report of ROTT Tests on ASME B16.20 SRI http://www.leadergasket.sk/zertifikate/ROTT_tests_on_ASME_B16.20_SRI.pdf
[6] EN 13555 Flanges and Their Joints - Gasket Parameters and Test Procedures Relevant to the Design Rules for Gasketed Circular Flange Connections [S].
[7] XU Changxiang. XU's Sealing Theory and Rectangular & O-Shaped Ring Seals [J].PETRO-CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT,2013,42 (2): 75-85.
[8] Garlock Helicoflex Master Catalog Metric. http://www.techneticsgroup.com/bin/371.pdf.
[9] Applications Engineering Department. Gasket Constants for the Layman, Garlock Technical Bulletin [OL]. 2004-09-08. http://www.garlock.com/eng_tools/gasketing/designInformation/Gasket%20Constants%20for%20the%20Layman.pdf.
[10] TTRL Report of Room Temperature Crush Resistance Tight ness Tests on Selco 4″ Class 150 lb SS316 Gasket [OL]. http://www.selcoseal.com/CrushResistance.pdf.
[11] Fig.3-8 O-Ring Leak Rate, Parker O-Ring Handbook ORD 5700 http://www.parker.com/literature/ORD%205700%20Parker_O-Ring_Handbook.pdf
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  • APA Style

    Xu Changxiang. (2016). Xu's Designs and Parameters for Sealing Elements. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 5(4-1), 35-42. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15

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    ACS Style

    Xu Changxiang. Xu's Designs and Parameters for Sealing Elements. Int. J. Energy Power Eng. 2016, 5(4-1), 35-42. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15

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    AMA Style

    Xu Changxiang. Xu's Designs and Parameters for Sealing Elements. Int J Energy Power Eng. 2016;5(4-1):35-42. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15,
      author = {Xu Changxiang},
      title = {Xu's Designs and Parameters for Sealing Elements},
      journal = {International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering},
      volume = {5},
      number = {4-1},
      pages = {35-42},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15},
      abstract = {Any leak-free achievement needs a sealing surface that has microcosmic irregularities fully complementary to a surface to be sealed and that can be qualified only by compressive working or installing in position. ASME Code mistakes the working stress needed to result in a qualified gasket in installation for the stress needed to enable a qualified gasket to function well or maintain its leak-free connection, and only considers the influence of the sealing material's strength but never its elasticity on sealing. Undoubtedly, ASME Code's leak-free Maintenance Factor m and Minimum Necessary Sealing Stress y of gaskets are both wrong in values. Similarly, neither is the gasket parameters system substituted for the gasket factors m and y by PVRC and EN 13555. Actually, the stronger the strength and the elasticity of a sealing contact layer, the more difficult for its sealing element to create or maintain a fully deformed contact; whereas the stronger the strength and the elasticity of a contact layer substrate, the easier for its sealing element to create or maintain a fully deformed contact; i.e. the index used to measure the difficulty for a sealing element to create or maintain a leak-free connection is its sealing difficulty factor m1 = its contact's elastic modulus Ec/its substrate's elastic modulus Es; so it is the most difficult for a rubber element to create or maintain a leak-free connection because its m1 ≡ 1, the easiest for a grease coating because its m1 = 0, and easier for the other sealing elements than for a rubber element because their m1 can be made smaller than 1 (or m1 < 1) by designing and coating.},
     year = {2016}
    }
    

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    AU  - Xu Changxiang
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    JF  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
    JO  - International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
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    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepe.s.2016050401.15
    AB  - Any leak-free achievement needs a sealing surface that has microcosmic irregularities fully complementary to a surface to be sealed and that can be qualified only by compressive working or installing in position. ASME Code mistakes the working stress needed to result in a qualified gasket in installation for the stress needed to enable a qualified gasket to function well or maintain its leak-free connection, and only considers the influence of the sealing material's strength but never its elasticity on sealing. Undoubtedly, ASME Code's leak-free Maintenance Factor m and Minimum Necessary Sealing Stress y of gaskets are both wrong in values. Similarly, neither is the gasket parameters system substituted for the gasket factors m and y by PVRC and EN 13555. Actually, the stronger the strength and the elasticity of a sealing contact layer, the more difficult for its sealing element to create or maintain a fully deformed contact; whereas the stronger the strength and the elasticity of a contact layer substrate, the easier for its sealing element to create or maintain a fully deformed contact; i.e. the index used to measure the difficulty for a sealing element to create or maintain a leak-free connection is its sealing difficulty factor m1 = its contact's elastic modulus Ec/its substrate's elastic modulus Es; so it is the most difficult for a rubber element to create or maintain a leak-free connection because its m1 ≡ 1, the easiest for a grease coating because its m1 = 0, and easier for the other sealing elements than for a rubber element because their m1 can be made smaller than 1 (or m1 < 1) by designing and coating.
    VL  - 5
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Author Information
  • Zhejiang China Valve Co. Ltd., Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325024, China

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