International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology

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Prevalence and Concentration of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Kales (Brassica oleracea Acephala) & Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sold at Masaku County, Kenya

Received: 17 September 2020    Accepted: 6 October 2020    Published: 9 November 2020
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Abstract

Background: Exposure to heavy metals (Pb and Cd) through diet posses a significant risk to human health. Areas of Mlolongo, Athi River and Syokimau are surrounded by industries, which dispose off their waste water to existing rivers and streams. The waste water is further used for irrigation which increases consumption of vegetables contaminated with lead and cadmium by human populations. Sample collection and analysis: samples were collected from markets, supermarkets and open air markets in Mlolongo, Athi river and Syokimau areas. Samples were analyzed for Lead and Cadmium using the AAS method as outlined in the AOAC. Results: Kale from farms around Mlolongo had lead content of 41.10±3.15µg/Kg compared to kale from farms in Syokimau (0.36±0.01µg/Kg). Spinach had lower concentration of lead (14.10±1.05µg/Kg) in farms in Mlolongo and 1.70±0.06µg/Kg in supermarkets in Syokimau. Than spinach. To the contrary cadmium contents were higher in spinach (0.51±0.02µg/Kg in supermarket in Mlolongo) than kale (0.38±0.01µg/Kg supermarkets in Mlolongo and Syokimau). Kale had a higher lead than cadmium content in the firm one in Athi river (14.00±2.10µg/Kg) than 3.80±0.81 µg/Kg) in the second farm which was the lowest. Vegetables from farm one are irrigated using effluent water from close industries. Lead content was highest in the first market (14.00±2.10µg/Kg) than the second market (3.80±0.81µg/Kg) in Athi river town. Cadmium contents were lower than lead but highest in the third market than the second market in the same town (0.20±0.07µg/Kg). Cadmium content was high in kale from supermarket in Athi river at (3.70±0.07 µg/Kg). Concentrations of lead in spinach were highest in the first farm at 5.30±1.10 µg/Kg and least in the spinach in supermarket at 0.30±0.01 µg/Kg. Conclusions: Lead content in vegetables vended in Athi river, Syokima and Mlolongo were above those recommended by the Ministry of Health and WHO. Similarly, cadmium content were high but within normal requirements. Exposure of lead to human populations, especially children is harmful to neurological developments.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16
Published in International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology (Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2020)
Page(s) 73-78
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Lead, Cadmium, Poisoning, Waste-water, Farm, Market

References
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    Mutuku Joseph Mutua, Onjong Hillary Adawo, Orina Isaac Alfred, Mwaniki Mercy Wanjiru, Vuluku Reagan, et al. (2020). Prevalence and Concentration of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Kales (Brassica oleracea Acephala) & Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sold at Masaku County, Kenya. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology, 5(4), 73-78. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16

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    ACS Style

    Mutuku Joseph Mutua; Onjong Hillary Adawo; Orina Isaac Alfred; Mwaniki Mercy Wanjiru; Vuluku Reagan, et al. Prevalence and Concentration of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Kales (Brassica oleracea Acephala) & Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sold at Masaku County, Kenya. Int. J. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2020, 5(4), 73-78. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16

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    AMA Style

    Mutuku Joseph Mutua, Onjong Hillary Adawo, Orina Isaac Alfred, Mwaniki Mercy Wanjiru, Vuluku Reagan, et al. Prevalence and Concentration of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Kales (Brassica oleracea Acephala) & Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sold at Masaku County, Kenya. Int J Food Sci Biotechnol. 2020;5(4):73-78. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16,
      author = {Mutuku Joseph Mutua and Onjong Hillary Adawo and Orina Isaac Alfred and Mwaniki Mercy Wanjiru and Vuluku Reagan and Muchai Venessa},
      title = {Prevalence and Concentration of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Kales (Brassica oleracea Acephala) & Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sold at Masaku County, Kenya},
      journal = {International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology},
      volume = {5},
      number = {4},
      pages = {73-78},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijfsb.20200504.16},
      abstract = {Background: Exposure to heavy metals (Pb and Cd) through diet posses a significant risk to human health. Areas of Mlolongo, Athi River and Syokimau are surrounded by industries, which dispose off their waste water to existing rivers and streams. The waste water is further used for irrigation which increases consumption of vegetables contaminated with lead and cadmium by human populations. Sample collection and analysis: samples were collected from markets, supermarkets and open air markets in Mlolongo, Athi river and Syokimau areas. Samples were analyzed for Lead and Cadmium using the AAS method as outlined in the AOAC. Results: Kale from farms around Mlolongo had lead content of 41.10±3.15µg/Kg compared to kale from farms in Syokimau (0.36±0.01µg/Kg). Spinach had lower concentration of lead (14.10±1.05µg/Kg) in farms in Mlolongo and 1.70±0.06µg/Kg in supermarkets in Syokimau. Than spinach. To the contrary cadmium contents were higher in spinach (0.51±0.02µg/Kg in supermarket in Mlolongo) than kale (0.38±0.01µg/Kg supermarkets in Mlolongo and Syokimau). Kale had a higher lead than cadmium content in the firm one in Athi river (14.00±2.10µg/Kg) than 3.80±0.81 µg/Kg) in the second farm which was the lowest. Vegetables from farm one are irrigated using effluent water from close industries. Lead content was highest in the first market (14.00±2.10µg/Kg) than the second market (3.80±0.81µg/Kg) in Athi river town. Cadmium contents were lower than lead but highest in the third market than the second market in the same town (0.20±0.07µg/Kg). Cadmium content was high in kale from supermarket in Athi river at (3.70±0.07 µg/Kg). Concentrations of lead in spinach were highest in the first farm at 5.30±1.10 µg/Kg and least in the spinach in supermarket at 0.30±0.01 µg/Kg. Conclusions: Lead content in vegetables vended in Athi river, Syokima and Mlolongo were above those recommended by the Ministry of Health and WHO. Similarly, cadmium content were high but within normal requirements. Exposure of lead to human populations, especially children is harmful to neurological developments.},
     year = {2020}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Prevalence and Concentration of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Kales (Brassica oleracea Acephala) & Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sold at Masaku County, Kenya
    AU  - Mutuku Joseph Mutua
    AU  - Onjong Hillary Adawo
    AU  - Orina Isaac Alfred
    AU  - Mwaniki Mercy Wanjiru
    AU  - Vuluku Reagan
    AU  - Muchai Venessa
    Y1  - 2020/11/09
    PY  - 2020
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16
    T2  - International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology
    JF  - International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology
    JO  - International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology
    SP  - 73
    EP  - 78
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2578-9643
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16
    AB  - Background: Exposure to heavy metals (Pb and Cd) through diet posses a significant risk to human health. Areas of Mlolongo, Athi River and Syokimau are surrounded by industries, which dispose off their waste water to existing rivers and streams. The waste water is further used for irrigation which increases consumption of vegetables contaminated with lead and cadmium by human populations. Sample collection and analysis: samples were collected from markets, supermarkets and open air markets in Mlolongo, Athi river and Syokimau areas. Samples were analyzed for Lead and Cadmium using the AAS method as outlined in the AOAC. Results: Kale from farms around Mlolongo had lead content of 41.10±3.15µg/Kg compared to kale from farms in Syokimau (0.36±0.01µg/Kg). Spinach had lower concentration of lead (14.10±1.05µg/Kg) in farms in Mlolongo and 1.70±0.06µg/Kg in supermarkets in Syokimau. Than spinach. To the contrary cadmium contents were higher in spinach (0.51±0.02µg/Kg in supermarket in Mlolongo) than kale (0.38±0.01µg/Kg supermarkets in Mlolongo and Syokimau). Kale had a higher lead than cadmium content in the firm one in Athi river (14.00±2.10µg/Kg) than 3.80±0.81 µg/Kg) in the second farm which was the lowest. Vegetables from farm one are irrigated using effluent water from close industries. Lead content was highest in the first market (14.00±2.10µg/Kg) than the second market (3.80±0.81µg/Kg) in Athi river town. Cadmium contents were lower than lead but highest in the third market than the second market in the same town (0.20±0.07µg/Kg). Cadmium content was high in kale from supermarket in Athi river at (3.70±0.07 µg/Kg). Concentrations of lead in spinach were highest in the first farm at 5.30±1.10 µg/Kg and least in the spinach in supermarket at 0.30±0.01 µg/Kg. Conclusions: Lead content in vegetables vended in Athi river, Syokima and Mlolongo were above those recommended by the Ministry of Health and WHO. Similarly, cadmium content were high but within normal requirements. Exposure of lead to human populations, especially children is harmful to neurological developments.
    VL  - 5
    IS  - 4
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

  • Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, School of Health Science and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

  • Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

  • Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

  • Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

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