Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants

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In Vitro Toxicity Test of Strichnos johnsonnii (Loganiaceae) on a Strain of Staphylococcus aureus

Received: Jun. 15, 2015    Accepted: Jun. 25, 2015    Published: Jul. 01, 2015
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to test the in vitro toxicity of an extract of Strychnos johnsonii (Loganiaceae) on a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The tests were performed in the bacteriology unit of the Douala General Hospital biology laboratory, dealing with an extract from the bark of stem of Strychnos johnsonii (Loganiaceae) harvested at Etome village, South West Cameroon and authenticated by a botanist. The plant extract was obtained by maceration in 300 mL of ethanol for 120 hours. The filtrate obtained was evaporated under vacuum, at 50° C, 250 mbar of pressure and at a speed of 125 rounds per minute. The residual solvent was eliminated in an incubator at 37° C for one week to give dry extract. Selected bacterial strain came from pus collected from an in-patient. By its biochemical and enzymatic characters, this strain showed 90.9% homology with the Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213-reference strain. No bacterial growth were observed on Mannitol Salt, EMB and Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol agar plates after 48 hours of incubation, evidence that the extract contained no germs before the test. The number of initial colonies for the time t0 averaged 225. The point of intersection between the inhibition curve and the x-axis as the MIC corresponds to 0,04 g/mL. The smallest concentration of the extract for which the growth of Staphylococcus aureus is zero on the Mannitol salt agar was 0.04 g/mL. Therefore, the MIC amounts to MBC. The results obtained showed a bactericidal effect, which could be, attributed to the presence of indole alkaloids in the plant.

DOI 10.11648/j.jdmp.20150103.12
Published in Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants ( Volume 1, Issue 3, August 2015 )
Page(s) 48-52
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Strychnos johnsonii, In Vitro Toxicity, Staphylococcus aureus

References
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[2] Gurib-Fakim, A. (2006). Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Molecular aspects of Medicine, 27(1), 1-93.
[3] Sapi, J. "G. Massiot in The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology Vol. 47." (1995): 173-226.
[4] Tchinda, A. T., Ngono, A. R., Tamze, V., Jonville, M. C., Cao, M., Angenot, L., & Frédérich, M. (2012). Antiplasmodial alkaloids from the stem bark of Strychnos malacoclados. Planta medica, 78(4), 377-382.
[5] Cao, R., Peng, W., Wang, Z., & Xu, A. (2007). β-Carboline alkaloids: biochemical and pharmacological functions. Current medicinal chemistry, 14(4), 479-500.
[6] Rajesh P, Rajesh Kannan V, Latha S, Selvamani P. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Plants belonging to Strychnos Genus. Bioactive Phytochemicals: Perspectives for Modern Medicine. 2014; 1:275 – 321.
[7] Philippe, G., Angenot, L., De Mol, P., Goffin, E., Hayette, M. P., Tits, M., & Frédérich, M. (2005). In vitro screening of some Strychnos species for antiplasmodial activity. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 97(3), 535-539.
[8] Leeuwenberg AJM. Flore du Cameroun. Museum National d’histoire naturelle. 1972; 16(12): 90, 140.
[9] Bisset, N. G. (1970). The African species of Strychnos, Part I. The ethno botany. Lloydia, 33, 201-43.
[10] Denoël A, Jaminet F, Detilleux G, Van Sumsen M, Merveille L. Contribution à l’étude phytochimique des Strychnos du Congo Belge. Ministère des colonies, Direction de l’agriculture, Bruxelles: Imifi; 1953. 208p
[11] Sandberg, F., Lunell, E., & Ryrberg, K. J. (1969). Pharmacological and phytochemical investigations of African Strychnos species. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 6(1), 79-102.
[12] Comité de l’Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Recommandations [en ligne]. 2014 [consulted on 30th may 2014]. Disponible: http ://www.Sfm–microbiologie.org, CASFM_EUCAST_V1_0_2014.pdf.
[13] Larcher C, détermination de la sensibilité aux antibiotiques, détermination de la CMI. [On line]. 2008 [consulted on 15th February 2014]. http://christelle.larcher.free.fr/IMG/pdf/determination_CMI-tr.pdf
[14] GANIERE, J. P., Mangion, C., & Péridy, M. (2004). Détermination des Concentrations Minimales Inhibitrices ET Bactéricides de la cefquinome, la marbofloxacine, la tylosine et la spiramycine en solution dans du lait vis-à-vis de bactéries isolées de mammites bovines. Revue de médecine vétérinaire, 155(8-9), 411-416.
[15] Talbert M, Willoquet G, Gervais R. Le guide de Pharmacoclinique [en line]. Reuil-Malmaison: Wolters Kluwer France; 2009. [Consulted on 20th April 2014].
[16] Verpoorte R, Kodde EW, Doorne H Van, Baerheim Svendsen A. Antimicrobial active Alkaloids from Strychnos afzelii. Planta medica 1978; 33:237–242
[17] Verpoorte, R., Van Beek, T. A., Thomassen, P. H. A. M., Aandewiel, J., & Svendsen, A. B. (1983). Screening of antimicrobial activity of some plants belonging to the Apocynaceae and Loganiaceae. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 8(3), 287-302.
[18] Massiot G, Thepenier P, Jacquier MJ, Men-Olivier LL, Verpoorte R, Delaude C. Alkaloids of Strychnos johnsonii. Phytochemistry 1987; 26(10): 2839-2846.
[19] Buckingham J, Baggaley KH, Roberts Andrew D, Szabo LF. Dictionary of Alkaloids. Second edition. 2009. 2374p.
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    Cecile Okalla Ebongue, Fanny Aimee Essombe Malolo, François Eya Ane Meva, Lidwine Ngah, Jean Claude Ndom, et al. (2015). In Vitro Toxicity Test of Strichnos johnsonnii (Loganiaceae) on a Strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants, 1(3), 48-52. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jdmp.20150103.12

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    ACS Style

    Cecile Okalla Ebongue; Fanny Aimee Essombe Malolo; François Eya Ane Meva; Lidwine Ngah; Jean Claude Ndom, et al. In Vitro Toxicity Test of Strichnos johnsonnii (Loganiaceae) on a Strain of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Dis. Med. Plants 2015, 1(3), 48-52. doi: 10.11648/j.jdmp.20150103.12

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    AMA Style

    Cecile Okalla Ebongue, Fanny Aimee Essombe Malolo, François Eya Ane Meva, Lidwine Ngah, Jean Claude Ndom, et al. In Vitro Toxicity Test of Strichnos johnsonnii (Loganiaceae) on a Strain of Staphylococcus aureus. J Dis Med Plants. 2015;1(3):48-52. doi: 10.11648/j.jdmp.20150103.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.jdmp.20150103.12,
      author = {Cecile Okalla Ebongue and Fanny Aimee Essombe Malolo and François Eya Ane Meva and Lidwine Ngah and Jean Claude Ndom and Emmanuel Mpondo Mpondo},
      title = {In Vitro Toxicity Test of Strichnos johnsonnii (Loganiaceae) on a Strain of Staphylococcus aureus},
      journal = {Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants},
      volume = {1},
      number = {3},
      pages = {48-52},
      doi = {10.11648/j.jdmp.20150103.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jdmp.20150103.12},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.jdmp.20150103.12},
      abstract = {The aim of this study was to test the in vitro toxicity of an extract of Strychnos johnsonii (Loganiaceae) on a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The tests were performed in the bacteriology unit of the Douala General Hospital biology laboratory, dealing with an extract from the bark of stem of Strychnos johnsonii (Loganiaceae) harvested at Etome village, South West Cameroon and authenticated by a botanist. The plant extract was obtained by maceration in 300 mL of ethanol for 120 hours. The filtrate obtained was evaporated under vacuum, at 50° C, 250 mbar of pressure and at a speed of 125 rounds per minute. The residual solvent was eliminated in an incubator at 37° C for one week to give dry extract. Selected bacterial strain came from pus collected from an in-patient. By its biochemical and enzymatic characters, this strain showed 90.9% homology with the Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213-reference strain. No bacterial growth were observed on Mannitol Salt, EMB and Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol agar plates after 48 hours of incubation, evidence that the extract contained no germs before the test. The number of initial colonies for the time t0 averaged 225. The point of intersection between the inhibition curve and the x-axis as the MIC corresponds to 0,04 g/mL. The smallest concentration of the extract for which the growth of Staphylococcus aureus is zero on the Mannitol salt agar was 0.04 g/mL. Therefore, the MIC amounts to MBC. The results obtained showed a bactericidal effect, which could be, attributed to the presence of indole alkaloids in the plant.},
     year = {2015}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - In Vitro Toxicity Test of Strichnos johnsonnii (Loganiaceae) on a Strain of Staphylococcus aureus
    AU  - Cecile Okalla Ebongue
    AU  - Fanny Aimee Essombe Malolo
    AU  - François Eya Ane Meva
    AU  - Lidwine Ngah
    AU  - Jean Claude Ndom
    AU  - Emmanuel Mpondo Mpondo
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    JF  - Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants
    JO  - Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants
    SP  - 48
    EP  - 52
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2469-8210
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jdmp.20150103.12
    AB  - The aim of this study was to test the in vitro toxicity of an extract of Strychnos johnsonii (Loganiaceae) on a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The tests were performed in the bacteriology unit of the Douala General Hospital biology laboratory, dealing with an extract from the bark of stem of Strychnos johnsonii (Loganiaceae) harvested at Etome village, South West Cameroon and authenticated by a botanist. The plant extract was obtained by maceration in 300 mL of ethanol for 120 hours. The filtrate obtained was evaporated under vacuum, at 50° C, 250 mbar of pressure and at a speed of 125 rounds per minute. The residual solvent was eliminated in an incubator at 37° C for one week to give dry extract. Selected bacterial strain came from pus collected from an in-patient. By its biochemical and enzymatic characters, this strain showed 90.9% homology with the Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213-reference strain. No bacterial growth were observed on Mannitol Salt, EMB and Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol agar plates after 48 hours of incubation, evidence that the extract contained no germs before the test. The number of initial colonies for the time t0 averaged 225. The point of intersection between the inhibition curve and the x-axis as the MIC corresponds to 0,04 g/mL. The smallest concentration of the extract for which the growth of Staphylococcus aureus is zero on the Mannitol salt agar was 0.04 g/mL. Therefore, the MIC amounts to MBC. The results obtained showed a bactericidal effect, which could be, attributed to the presence of indole alkaloids in the plant.
    VL  - 1
    IS  - 3
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Clinical biology Laboratory, General Hospital of Douala, Douala, Cameroon; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon

  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon

  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon

  • Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon

  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon

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