World Journal of Applied Chemistry

| Peer-Reviewed |

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol

Received: May 10, 2016    Accepted: Jun. 25, 2016    Published: Jul. 15, 2016
Views:       Downloads:

Share

Abstract

Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O) + to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O) + to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.

DOI 10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11
Published in World Journal of Applied Chemistry ( Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2016 )
Page(s) 1-8
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Previous article
Keywords

Biofield Energy Treatment, The Trivedi Effect®, Thymol, Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry, Isotopic Abundance Ratio, Isotope Effects, Kinetic Isotope Effect

References
[1] Burt S (2004) Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-A review. Int J Food Microbiol 94: 223-253.
[2] Waliwitiya R, Belton P, Nicholson RA, Lowenberger CA (2010) Effects of the essential oil constituent thymol and other neuroactive chemicals on flight motor activity and wing beat frequency in the blowfly Phaenicia sericata. Pest Manag Sci 66: 277-289.
[3] Lee SP, Buber MT, Yang Q, Cerne R, Cortés RY, Sprous DG, Bryant RW (2008). Thymol and related alkyl phenols activate the hTRPA 1 channel. Br J Pharmacol 153: 1739-1749.
[4] Mathela CS, Singh KK, Gupta VK (2010) Synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research 67: 375-380.
[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymol
[6] Nagle PS, Pawar YA, Sonawane AE, Nikum AP, Patil UD, More DH (2013) Thymol: Synthesis, reactions & its spectrum of pharmacological and chemical applications. Indo American Journal of Pharm Research 3: 7549-7561.
[7] Lambert RJW, Skandamis PN, Coote PJ, Nychas G-JE (2001) A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. J Appl Microbiol 91: 453-462.
[8] Mastelić J 1, Jerković I, Blazević I, Poljak-Blazi M, Borović S, Ivancić-Baće I, Smrecki V, Zarković N, Brcić-Kostic K, Vikić-Topić D, Müller N (2008) Comparative study on the antioxidant and biological activities of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol derivatives. J Agric Food Chem 56: 3989-3996.
[9] Gannes LZ, Martinez del Rio C, Koch P (1998) Natural abundance variations in stable isotopes and their potential uses in animal physiological ecology. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Intergr Physiol 119: 725-737.
[10] Schellekens RC, Stellaard F, Woerdenbag HJ, Frijlink HW, Kosterink JG (2011) Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology. Br J Clin Pharmacol 72: 879-897.
[11] Muccio Z, Jackson GP (2009) Isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Analyst 134: 213-222.
[12] http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c06/e6-104-01-00.pdf
[13] www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/ih/documents/global_cycle/.../cht_i_03.pd
[14] Vanhaecke F, Kyser K (2012) Isotopic composition of the elements In Isotopic Analysis: Fundamentals and applications using ICP-MS, 1st Edn., Edited by Vanhaecke F, Degryse P, Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
[15] Meier-Augenstein W (1999) Applied gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 842: 351-371.
[16] Rubik B (2002) The biofield hypothesis: Its biophysical basis and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med 8: 703-717.
[17] http://healthandlight.com/biofield.htm
[18] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, Jana S (2015) Experimental investigation on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-chlorobenzonitrile: Impact of biofield treatment. Modern Chemistry 3: 38-46.
[19] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, Jana S (2015) Characterization of physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of biofield energy treated p-phenylenediamine and p-toluidine. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5: 329.
[20] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of biofield treated p-hydroxyacetophenone. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 190.
[21] Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Spectroscopic characterization of chloramphenicol and tetracycline: An impact of biofield. Pharm Anal Acta 6: 395.
[22] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Spectroscopic characterization of disulfiram and nicotinic acid after biofield treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265.
[23] Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mishra RK, Jana S (2015) Biofield treatment: A potential strategy for modification of physical and thermal properties of gluten hydrolysate and ipomoea macroelements. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 414.
[24] Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Latiyal O, Jana S (2015) Characterization of physical, thermal and structural properties of chromium (VI) oxide powder: Impact of biofield treatment. J Powder Metall Min 4: 128.
[25] Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Tallapragada RM, Patil S, Latiyal O, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on structural and morphological properties of silicon carbide. J Powder Metall Min 4: 132.
[26] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, Jana S (2015) Physicochemical characterization of biofield treated orchid maintenance/replate medium. Journal of Plant Sciences. 3: 285-293.
[27] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of biofield energy treated protose. American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 3: 104-110.
[28] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of biochemical marker - glutathione and DNA fingerprinting of biofield energy treated Oryza sativa. American Journal of BioScience 3: 243-248.
[29] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of plant growth regulator, immunity and DNA fingerprinting of biofield energy treated mustard seeds (Brassica juncea). Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 4: 269-274.
[30] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Shettigar H, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Assessment of antibiogram of multidrug-resistant isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes after biofield energy treatment. J Pharma Care Health Sys 2: 145.
[31] Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of biofield modality on viral load of Hepatitis B and C viruses. J Antivir Antiretrovir 7: 083-088.
[32] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Antibiogram and genotypic analysis using 16 S rDNA after biofield treatment on Morganella morganii. Adv Tech Biol Med 3: 137.
[33] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Antibiogram, biochemical reactions, and genotypic pattern of biofield treated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Trop Dis 4: 181.
[34] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Investigation of isotopic abundance ratio of biofield treated phenol derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat Techniq S 6: 003.
[35] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Quantitative determination of isotopic abundance ratio of 13C, 2H, and 18O in biofield energy treated ortho and meta toluic acid isomers. American Journal of Applied Chemistry 3: 217-223.
[36] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Isotopic abundance analysis of biofield treated benzene, toluene and p-xylene using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Mass Spectrom Open Access 1: 102.
[37] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Thermal, spectroscopic and chromatographic characterization of biofield energy treated benzophenone. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry 3: 109-114.
[38] Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of isotopic abundance ratio of naphthalene derivatives after biofield energy treatment using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. American Journal of Applied Chemistry 3: 194-200.
[39] Trivedi MK, Patil S, Mishra RK, Jana S (2015) Structural and physical properties of biofield treated thymol and menthol. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 127.
[40] Smith RM (2004) Understanding Mass Spectra: A Basic Approach, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, ISBN 0-471-42949-X.
[41] http://www.sepscience.com/Information/Archive/MS-Solutions/254-/MS-Solutions-5-The-Role-of-Isotope-Peak-Intensities-Obtained-Using-Mass-Spectrometry-in-Determining-an-Elemental-Composition-Part-1
[42] Meija J, Coplen TB, Berglund M, Brand WA, De Bievre P, Groning M, Holden NE, Irrgeher J, Loss RD, Walczyk T, Prohaska T (2016) Isotopic compositions of the elements 2013 (IUPAC technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 88: 293-306.
[43] http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Core/Analytical_Chemistry/Instrumental_Analysis/Mass_Spectrometry/Mass_Spectrometry%3A_Isotope_Effects
[44] Raymond E. March, John F. J. Todd Practical Aspects of Trapped Ion Mass Spectrometry, Volume IV: Theory and instrumentation (2010) CRC press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton.
[45] https://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Environmental_Management/Stockholm_Convention/POPs/DLWKSP_Part2.pdf
[46] http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C89838&Units=CAL&Mask=3FFF
[47] Clayton D (2003) Handbook of Isotopes in the Cosmos: Hydrogen to Gallium, Cambridge University Press, New York.
[48] Qian Y-Z, Vogel P, Wasserburg GJ (1999) Neutrino fluence after r-process freeze-out and abundances of Te isotopes in presolar diamonds. Astrophys J 513: 956-960.
[49] Jenkins L (2011) Healing in the present moment. ISBN 978-1-257-77329-9.
[50] Rogers, M (1986) "Science of Unitary Human Beings." In V. M. Malinski (ed.) Explorations of Martha Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings. Norwark: Appleton Century Crofts.
[51] Asperger S (2003) Chemical Kinetics and Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Springer science + Business media, New York.
[52] Carr Jr. RW, Walters WD (1966) The hydrogen isotope effect in the thermal decomposition of cyclobutane. J Am Chem Soc 88: 884-887.
[53] Makhatadze GI, Clore GM, Gronenborn AM (1995) Solvent isotope effect and protein stability. Nat Struct Biol 2: 852 - 855.
[54] Schramm VL (1998) Enzymatic transition states and transition state analog design. Annu Rev Biochem 67: 693-720.
[55] Cleland WW (2003) The use of isotope effects to determine enzyme mechanisms. J Biol Chem 278: 51975-51984.
Cite This Article
  • APA Style

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Parthasarathi Panda, et al. (2016). Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 1(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11

    Copy | Download

    ACS Style

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Alice Branton; Dahryn Trivedi; Gopal Nayak; Parthasarathi Panda, et al. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol. World J. Appl. Chem. 2016, 1(1), 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11

    Copy | Download

    AMA Style

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Parthasarathi Panda, et al. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol. World J Appl Chem. 2016;1(1):1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11

    Copy | Download

  • @article{10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11,
      author = {Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and Alice Branton and Dahryn Trivedi and Gopal Nayak and Parthasarathi Panda and Snehasis Jana},
      title = {Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol},
      journal = {World Journal of Applied Chemistry},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-8},
      doi = {10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.wjac.20160101.11},
      abstract = {Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O) + to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O) + to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.},
     year = {2016}
    }
    

    Copy | Download

  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol
    AU  - Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
    AU  - Alice Branton
    AU  - Dahryn Trivedi
    AU  - Gopal Nayak
    AU  - Parthasarathi Panda
    AU  - Snehasis Jana
    Y1  - 2016/07/15
    PY  - 2016
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11
    T2  - World Journal of Applied Chemistry
    JF  - World Journal of Applied Chemistry
    JO  - World Journal of Applied Chemistry
    SP  - 1
    EP  - 8
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2637-5982
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20160101.11
    AB  - Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O) + to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O) + to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.
    VL  - 1
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

    Copy | Download

Author Information
  • Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA

  • Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA

  • Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA

  • Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA

  • Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

  • Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

  • Section