American Journal of Nursing Science

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Influence of Stress on Drug Abuse Among Prison Inmates: A Case of Kangeta Prison, Meru County, Kenya

Received: 9 October 2023    Accepted: 24 October 2023    Published: 1 February 2024
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Abstract

Prisons aim to rehabilitate inmates, but drug abuse among prisoners undermines this goal. Despite government efforts, drug use persists in Kenyan prisons, particularly in Kangeta Prison. This study addresses the gap in understanding the links between stress and drug abuse among Kangeta inmates. Stress, a reaction to environmental events, can lead individuals to cope through various means, including substance abuse. In prisons, factors like police relationships, new environments, and fear contribute to inmate stress. Mental illnesses are prevalent among inmates, often exacerbated by traumatic life events. Drug abuse serves as an escape from emotional turmoil, peer pressure, and limited mental health care in prisons. Inmates addicted to drugs face intense withdrawal symptoms when incarcerated. Managing inmate stress is crucial for rehabilitation, requiring effective programs and a stress-free environment in prisons. The study, conducted in Kangeta Prison, utilized a mixed-method design with 497 inmates and 26 prison staff. Sampling involved both random and purposive methods. Questionnaires and interviews collected data on stress, prison policies, and drug abuse. A pilot study ensured instrument reliability. Ethical considerations were adhered to, obtaining authorization from the university ethics committee and NACOSTI. Survey results indicated a moderate correlation (0.629) between stress and drug abuse, with stressors such as separation from family and inadequate stress management programs in prison. Stakeholder interviews highlighted the unpleasant prison environment contributing to drug abuse. Inmates often resort to drugs as a coping mechanism. Stress is a significant contributor to drug abuse among Kangeta inmates. Prison conditions, separation from loved ones, and a lack of stress management programs intensify stress levels. Addressing the root causes of drug abuse is crucial for effective rehabilitation. Recommendations to reduce stress among the inmates includes integrating stress mitigation activities, enhancing emotional wellness programs, educating inmates on stress-drug abuse links, and establishing peer support groups. These measures aim to minimize drug abuse through improved mental health care and stress management. Future research should be done explore factors influencing drug abuse in other Kenyan prisons, challenges in correctional department reforms, and the role of inmates in the stress rehabilitation process.

DOI 10.11648/ajns.20241301.13
Published in American Journal of Nursing Science (Volume 13, Issue 1, February 2024)
Page(s) 12-17
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Drugs, Inmates, Stress

References
[1] National Institute of Drug Abuse AND Mental Health; (2017) Clinical Trials Network Susukida, R., Crum, R. M., Ebnesajjad, C., Stuart, E. A., & Mojtabai, R. (2017). Generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials: application to the. Addiction, 112(7), 1210-1219.
[2] Kaeble, G. L. (2018). Correctional populations in the United States/ Prison health and safety program. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1-19.
[3] Carlson, B. E. (2010). Traumatic histories and stressful life events of incarcerated parents. Childhood and adult trauma histories. The Prison Journal, 475–493.
[4] Shrestha G, Y. D. (2017). Depression among inmates in a regional prison of eastern Nepal: A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2017; 17: 1–9. A cross-sectional study. BMC psychiatry, 17, 1-9.
[5] American Psychological Association (2017 Decisions to breach confidentiality when prisoners report violations of institutional rules. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 37(2), 150-154.
[6] Pearlin, L. I. (2010). The life course and the stress process: Some conceptual comparisons. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 207–215.
[7] Vest, N., Johnson, O., Nowotny, K., & Brinkley-Rubinstein, L. (2021). Prison population reductions and COVID-19: A latent profile analysis synthesizing recent evidence from the Texas state prison system. Journal of Urban Health, 98, 53-58.
[8] Maschi, T. (2016). Trauma and violent delinquent behavior among males; The moderating role of social support. Stress, Trauma, and Crisis, 45–72.
[9] Anjali, W. A. (2021). The Crisis Intervention Team Model of Police Response to Mental Health Crises. A Primer for Mental Health Practitioners Best Practices in Mental Health, 8(2), 71-81.
[10] Duke, K. (2011). Reconceptualising harm reduction in prisons. The drug effect: Health, crime and society, 209-224.
[11] Kinyanjui, D. & Atwoli. K. (2013). Substance use among inmates at the Eldoret prison in Western Kenya. BMC psychiatry, 13, 1-8.
[12] Martin, S. S. Friedmann, P. D., Katz, E. C., Rhodes, A. G., Taxman, F. S., O'CONNELL, D. J., Frisman, L. K.,... & (2008). Collaborative behavioral management for drug-involved parolees: Rationale and design of the Step'n Out Study. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 47(3), 290-318.
[13] Ngare, O. A. (2005). The impact of prison reforms on the inmate rehabilitation programs in Kenya: a case study of Kamiti and Langata prison. Nairobi Kenya: University of Nairobi, department of sociology, (28-79).
[14] Nick, M. (2015). The Five-Legged Stool, A Model for CIT Program sucess. Police Chief Magazine; The Police Chief Journal, 82(10).
[15] Pinc, T. (2010). Police Reform; A Determinant of Democracy’s Development. Police to Combat Insecurity and Crime., (1) 2-16.
[16] Graham, L. P. (2012). Alcohol problems in the Criminal justice system; an opportunity for intervention. Journal of ethnopharmacology,, 112-117.
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  • APA Style

    Mugambi, B., Japheth, L., Mwirigi, C. (2024). Influence of Stress on Drug Abuse Among Prison Inmates: A Case of Kangeta Prison, Meru County, Kenya. American Journal of Nursing Science, 13(1), 12-17. https://doi.org/10.11648/ajns.20241301.13

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    ACS Style

    Mugambi, B.; Japheth, L.; Mwirigi, C. Influence of Stress on Drug Abuse Among Prison Inmates: A Case of Kangeta Prison, Meru County, Kenya. Am. J. Nurs. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 12-17. doi: 10.11648/ajns.20241301.13

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    AMA Style

    Mugambi B, Japheth L, Mwirigi C. Influence of Stress on Drug Abuse Among Prison Inmates: A Case of Kangeta Prison, Meru County, Kenya. Am J Nurs Sci. 2024;13(1):12-17. doi: 10.11648/ajns.20241301.13

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  • @article{10.11648/ajns.20241301.13,
      author = {Benjamin Mugambi and Lumadede Japheth and Charles Mwirigi},
      title = {Influence of Stress on Drug Abuse Among Prison Inmates: A Case of Kangeta Prison, Meru County, Kenya},
      journal = {American Journal of Nursing Science},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {12-17},
      doi = {10.11648/ajns.20241301.13},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/ajns.20241301.13},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.ajns.20241301.13},
      abstract = {Prisons aim to rehabilitate inmates, but drug abuse among prisoners undermines this goal. Despite government efforts, drug use persists in Kenyan prisons, particularly in Kangeta Prison. This study addresses the gap in understanding the links between stress and drug abuse among Kangeta inmates. Stress, a reaction to environmental events, can lead individuals to cope through various means, including substance abuse. In prisons, factors like police relationships, new environments, and fear contribute to inmate stress. Mental illnesses are prevalent among inmates, often exacerbated by traumatic life events. Drug abuse serves as an escape from emotional turmoil, peer pressure, and limited mental health care in prisons. Inmates addicted to drugs face intense withdrawal symptoms when incarcerated. Managing inmate stress is crucial for rehabilitation, requiring effective programs and a stress-free environment in prisons. The study, conducted in Kangeta Prison, utilized a mixed-method design with 497 inmates and 26 prison staff. Sampling involved both random and purposive methods. Questionnaires and interviews collected data on stress, prison policies, and drug abuse. A pilot study ensured instrument reliability. Ethical considerations were adhered to, obtaining authorization from the university ethics committee and NACOSTI. Survey results indicated a moderate correlation (0.629) between stress and drug abuse, with stressors such as separation from family and inadequate stress management programs in prison. Stakeholder interviews highlighted the unpleasant prison environment contributing to drug abuse. Inmates often resort to drugs as a coping mechanism. Stress is a significant contributor to drug abuse among Kangeta inmates. Prison conditions, separation from loved ones, and a lack of stress management programs intensify stress levels. Addressing the root causes of drug abuse is crucial for effective rehabilitation. Recommendations to reduce stress among the inmates includes integrating stress mitigation activities, enhancing emotional wellness programs, educating inmates on stress-drug abuse links, and establishing peer support groups. These measures aim to minimize drug abuse through improved mental health care and stress management. Future research should be done explore factors influencing drug abuse in other Kenyan prisons, challenges in correctional department reforms, and the role of inmates in the stress rehabilitation process.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Influence of Stress on Drug Abuse Among Prison Inmates: A Case of Kangeta Prison, Meru County, Kenya
    AU  - Benjamin Mugambi
    AU  - Lumadede Japheth
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    DO  - 10.11648/ajns.20241301.13
    T2  - American Journal of Nursing Science
    JF  - American Journal of Nursing Science
    JO  - American Journal of Nursing Science
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    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2328-5753
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/ajns.20241301.13
    AB  - Prisons aim to rehabilitate inmates, but drug abuse among prisoners undermines this goal. Despite government efforts, drug use persists in Kenyan prisons, particularly in Kangeta Prison. This study addresses the gap in understanding the links between stress and drug abuse among Kangeta inmates. Stress, a reaction to environmental events, can lead individuals to cope through various means, including substance abuse. In prisons, factors like police relationships, new environments, and fear contribute to inmate stress. Mental illnesses are prevalent among inmates, often exacerbated by traumatic life events. Drug abuse serves as an escape from emotional turmoil, peer pressure, and limited mental health care in prisons. Inmates addicted to drugs face intense withdrawal symptoms when incarcerated. Managing inmate stress is crucial for rehabilitation, requiring effective programs and a stress-free environment in prisons. The study, conducted in Kangeta Prison, utilized a mixed-method design with 497 inmates and 26 prison staff. Sampling involved both random and purposive methods. Questionnaires and interviews collected data on stress, prison policies, and drug abuse. A pilot study ensured instrument reliability. Ethical considerations were adhered to, obtaining authorization from the university ethics committee and NACOSTI. Survey results indicated a moderate correlation (0.629) between stress and drug abuse, with stressors such as separation from family and inadequate stress management programs in prison. Stakeholder interviews highlighted the unpleasant prison environment contributing to drug abuse. Inmates often resort to drugs as a coping mechanism. Stress is a significant contributor to drug abuse among Kangeta inmates. Prison conditions, separation from loved ones, and a lack of stress management programs intensify stress levels. Addressing the root causes of drug abuse is crucial for effective rehabilitation. Recommendations to reduce stress among the inmates includes integrating stress mitigation activities, enhancing emotional wellness programs, educating inmates on stress-drug abuse links, and establishing peer support groups. These measures aim to minimize drug abuse through improved mental health care and stress management. Future research should be done explore factors influencing drug abuse in other Kenyan prisons, challenges in correctional department reforms, and the role of inmates in the stress rehabilitation process.
    
    VL  - 13
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Author Information
  • Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tharaka University, Marimanti, Kenya

  • Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tharaka University, Marimanti, Kenya

  • Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tharaka University, Marimanti, Kenya

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