American Journal of Environmental Protection

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Impacts of Aluminium and Nitrogen Compounds (Nitrate and Ammonium) on the Physico-Chemical Quality of Groundwater in the District of Abidjan

Received: 19 September 2023    Accepted: 12 October 2023    Published: 11 November 2023
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Abstract

The boreholes use to supply drinking water in the District of Abidjan are located in heavily urbanised areas. This high level of urbanisation is increasingly contributing to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of aluminium and nitrogen compounds on the physico-chemical quality of groundwater in the District of Abidjan. To achieve this objective, the physico-chemical parameters of fifty (50) groundwater samples were determined over a four year period (2019-2022) during the dry and rainy seasons. A total of 400 groundwater samples were analysed. With the exception of aluminium, nitrate and ammonium, all the chemical elements analysed namely Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, O2; SO42-, SiO2, PO43-, NO2-, Cl-, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Fe, H2S and F- were below the values recommended by world health organisation for water intended for human consumption. High levels of aluminium, nitrate and ammonium were observed in 49.5%, 10.75% and 18, 25% of the water samples analysed respectively. The study of spatial and temporal variation shows that groundwater pollution depends on the geographical location of the groundwater and not on the seasons. Principal Component Analysis (ACP) reveals the natural and anthropogenic mineralisation of groundwater.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11
Published in American Journal of Environmental Protection (Volume 12, Issue 6, December 2023)
Page(s) 150-159
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Abidjan, Groundwater, Aluminium, Nitrate, Ammonium, Principal Component Analysis

References
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    Savadogo, I., Aw, S., Oga, Y. M. S. (2023). Impacts of Aluminium and Nitrogen Compounds (Nitrate and Ammonium) on the Physico-Chemical Quality of Groundwater in the District of Abidjan. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 12(6), 150-159. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11

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    ACS Style

    Savadogo, I.; Aw, S.; Oga, Y. M. S. Impacts of Aluminium and Nitrogen Compounds (Nitrate and Ammonium) on the Physico-Chemical Quality of Groundwater in the District of Abidjan. Am. J. Environ. Prot. 2023, 12(6), 150-159. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11

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    AMA Style

    Savadogo I, Aw S, Oga YMS. Impacts of Aluminium and Nitrogen Compounds (Nitrate and Ammonium) on the Physico-Chemical Quality of Groundwater in the District of Abidjan. Am J Environ Prot. 2023;12(6):150-159. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11,
      author = {Ibrahim Savadogo and Sadat Aw and Yeï Marie Solange Oga},
      title = {Impacts of Aluminium and Nitrogen Compounds (Nitrate and Ammonium) on the Physico-Chemical Quality of Groundwater in the District of Abidjan},
      journal = {American Journal of Environmental Protection},
      volume = {12},
      number = {6},
      pages = {150-159},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajep.20231206.11},
      abstract = {The boreholes use to supply drinking water in the District of Abidjan are located in heavily urbanised areas. This high level of urbanisation is increasingly contributing to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of aluminium and nitrogen compounds on the physico-chemical quality of groundwater in the District of Abidjan. To achieve this objective, the physico-chemical parameters of fifty (50) groundwater samples were determined over a four year period (2019-2022) during the dry and rainy seasons. A total of 400 groundwater samples were analysed. With the exception of aluminium, nitrate and ammonium, all the chemical elements analysed namely Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, O2; SO42-, SiO2, PO43-, NO2-, Cl-, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Fe, H2S and F- were below the values recommended by world health organisation for water intended for human consumption. High levels of aluminium, nitrate and ammonium were observed in 49.5%, 10.75% and 18, 25% of the water samples analysed respectively. The study of spatial and temporal variation shows that groundwater pollution depends on the geographical location of the groundwater and not on the seasons. Principal Component Analysis (ACP) reveals the natural and anthropogenic mineralisation of groundwater.
    },
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Impacts of Aluminium and Nitrogen Compounds (Nitrate and Ammonium) on the Physico-Chemical Quality of Groundwater in the District of Abidjan
    AU  - Ibrahim Savadogo
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    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11
    T2  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    JF  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    JO  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
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    EP  - 159
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2328-5699
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.11
    AB  - The boreholes use to supply drinking water in the District of Abidjan are located in heavily urbanised areas. This high level of urbanisation is increasingly contributing to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of aluminium and nitrogen compounds on the physico-chemical quality of groundwater in the District of Abidjan. To achieve this objective, the physico-chemical parameters of fifty (50) groundwater samples were determined over a four year period (2019-2022) during the dry and rainy seasons. A total of 400 groundwater samples were analysed. With the exception of aluminium, nitrate and ammonium, all the chemical elements analysed namely Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, O2; SO42-, SiO2, PO43-, NO2-, Cl-, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Fe, H2S and F- were below the values recommended by world health organisation for water intended for human consumption. High levels of aluminium, nitrate and ammonium were observed in 49.5%, 10.75% and 18, 25% of the water samples analysed respectively. The study of spatial and temporal variation shows that groundwater pollution depends on the geographical location of the groundwater and not on the seasons. Principal Component Analysis (ACP) reveals the natural and anthropogenic mineralisation of groundwater.
    
    VL  - 12
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    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Doctoral School of Science Technology and Sustainable Agriculture (ED-STAD), Félix Houphouët Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

  • Laboratory of Industrial Processes, Environmental Synthesis and New Energies (LAPISEN), Félix Houphouët Boigny National Polytechnic Institue (INP-HB), Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

  • Laboratory of Soil, Water and Geomaterials Sciences, UFR-STRM, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

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