American Journal of Environmental Protection

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Seasonal Variation of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Irrigation Suitability of the Waters of the Tsieme River in Brazzaville (Congo)

Received: 13 October 2023    Accepted: 8 November 2023    Published: 17 November 2023
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Abstract

Water is a basic need for all living beings, it contributes to sustainable development. The management of water resources is a major challenge in the world and for most developing countries. This work proposes to evaluate the physico-chemical quality and the suitability for irrigation of the Tsiémé River in Brazzaville (Congo) during two seasons (dry season 2021 and rainy season 2022). Eight (08) water samples were taken, four times (04) samples per season and then analyzed by physico-chemical methods. The results obtained during the 2021 dry season and the 2022 rainy season revealed temperatures exceeding the WHO standard (25°C), very soft and sometimes turbid waters (8.02-214.00 NTU) with pH values oscillating between 5.61 and 7.73, a low concentration of major and minor ions which confirms the low mineralization of this river. These low levels of major and minor ions show that these waters benefit from the geology of the environment crossed. The dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter contents exceed the WHO guideline values. The projection of water points on Piper's triangular diagram essentially highlights two chemical families: sodium and potassium bicarbonate waters and sodium and potassium chloride waters; the schoeller diagram confirms the facies observed in the Piper diagram. The concentration average of absordable sodium, determined from the SAR, varies from 2.88 to 5.33 meq/L in the dry season and from 0.2 to 2.78 meq/L in the rainy season. These waters belong to class S1 (SAR < 10). The water from the Tsiémé River contains a low amount of sodium and can be used for irrigation in almost any soil without fear of difficulties arising from the alkalinization point of view. Thus, the irrigation indices reveal that the Tsiémé River is of fairly good quality for irrigation.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12
Published in American Journal of Environmental Protection (Volume 12, Issue 6, December 2023)
Page(s) 160-170
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

River Water, Seasonal Variation, Physico-Chemical Parameters, Suitability for Irrigation, Brazzaville, Congo

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    Martin, T., Promesse, M. N., Félicien, L. M. R., Bardoul, E. C. (2023). Seasonal Variation of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Irrigation Suitability of the Waters of the Tsieme River in Brazzaville (Congo). American Journal of Environmental Protection, 12(6), 160-170. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12

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    ACS Style

    Martin, T.; Promesse, M. N.; Félicien, L. M. R.; Bardoul, E. C. Seasonal Variation of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Irrigation Suitability of the Waters of the Tsieme River in Brazzaville (Congo). Am. J. Environ. Prot. 2023, 12(6), 160-170. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12

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    AMA Style

    Martin T, Promesse MN, Félicien LMR, Bardoul EC. Seasonal Variation of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Irrigation Suitability of the Waters of the Tsieme River in Brazzaville (Congo). Am J Environ Prot. 2023;12(6):160-170. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12,
      author = {Tchoumou Martin and Moussoki Nsona Promesse and Louzayadio Mvouezolo Raison Félicien and Engambe Christ Bardoul},
      title = {Seasonal Variation of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Irrigation Suitability of the Waters of the Tsieme River in Brazzaville (Congo)},
      journal = {American Journal of Environmental Protection},
      volume = {12},
      number = {6},
      pages = {160-170},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajep.20231206.12},
      abstract = {Water is a basic need for all living beings, it contributes to sustainable development. The management of water resources is a major challenge in the world and for most developing countries. This work proposes to evaluate the physico-chemical quality and the suitability for irrigation of the Tsiémé River in Brazzaville (Congo) during two seasons (dry season 2021 and rainy season 2022). Eight (08) water samples were taken, four times (04) samples per season and then analyzed by physico-chemical methods. The results obtained during the 2021 dry season and the 2022 rainy season revealed temperatures exceeding the WHO standard (25°C), very soft and sometimes turbid waters (8.02-214.00 NTU) with pH values oscillating between 5.61 and 7.73, a low concentration of major and minor ions which confirms the low mineralization of this river. These low levels of major and minor ions show that these waters benefit from the geology of the environment crossed. The dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter contents exceed the WHO guideline values. The projection of water points on Piper's triangular diagram essentially highlights two chemical families: sodium and potassium bicarbonate waters and sodium and potassium chloride waters; the schoeller diagram confirms the facies observed in the Piper diagram. The concentration average of absordable sodium, determined from the SAR, varies from 2.88 to 5.33 meq/L in the dry season and from 0.2 to 2.78 meq/L in the rainy season. These waters belong to class S1 (SAR < 10). The water from the Tsiémé River contains a low amount of sodium and can be used for irrigation in almost any soil without fear of difficulties arising from the alkalinization point of view. Thus, the irrigation indices reveal that the Tsiémé River is of fairly good quality for irrigation.
    },
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Seasonal Variation of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Irrigation Suitability of the Waters of the Tsieme River in Brazzaville (Congo)
    AU  - Tchoumou Martin
    AU  - Moussoki Nsona Promesse
    AU  - Louzayadio Mvouezolo Raison Félicien
    AU  - Engambe Christ Bardoul
    Y1  - 2023/11/17
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12
    T2  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    JF  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    JO  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    SP  - 160
    EP  - 170
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2328-5699
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20231206.12
    AB  - Water is a basic need for all living beings, it contributes to sustainable development. The management of water resources is a major challenge in the world and for most developing countries. This work proposes to evaluate the physico-chemical quality and the suitability for irrigation of the Tsiémé River in Brazzaville (Congo) during two seasons (dry season 2021 and rainy season 2022). Eight (08) water samples were taken, four times (04) samples per season and then analyzed by physico-chemical methods. The results obtained during the 2021 dry season and the 2022 rainy season revealed temperatures exceeding the WHO standard (25°C), very soft and sometimes turbid waters (8.02-214.00 NTU) with pH values oscillating between 5.61 and 7.73, a low concentration of major and minor ions which confirms the low mineralization of this river. These low levels of major and minor ions show that these waters benefit from the geology of the environment crossed. The dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter contents exceed the WHO guideline values. The projection of water points on Piper's triangular diagram essentially highlights two chemical families: sodium and potassium bicarbonate waters and sodium and potassium chloride waters; the schoeller diagram confirms the facies observed in the Piper diagram. The concentration average of absordable sodium, determined from the SAR, varies from 2.88 to 5.33 meq/L in the dry season and from 0.2 to 2.78 meq/L in the rainy season. These waters belong to class S1 (SAR < 10). The water from the Tsiémé River contains a low amount of sodium and can be used for irrigation in almost any soil without fear of difficulties arising from the alkalinization point of view. Thus, the irrigation indices reveal that the Tsiémé River is of fairly good quality for irrigation.
    
    VL  - 12
    IS  - 6
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Plant and Life Chemistry Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, Marien NGOUABI University, Brazzaville, Congo; Department of Chemistry, Marien NGOUABI University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

  • Plant and Life Chemistry Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, Marien NGOUABI University, Brazzaville, Congo; Department of Chemistry, Marien NGOUABI University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

  • Plant and Life Chemistry Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, Marien NGOUABI University, Brazzaville, Congo; Department of Chemistry, Marien NGOUABI University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

  • Department of Chemistry, Marien NGOUABI University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

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