American Journal of Environmental Protection

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Water Evaporation and Soil Suction Measurements of Different Soil Types in Jordan

Received: 6 December 2023    Accepted: 27 December 2023    Published: 23 January 2024
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Abstract

Jordan is considered a semi-arid region with an average annual precipitation of 111 mm/year. Therefore, it is essential to study and understand the soil properties to reduce water losses and maximize water storage within the land. The current research offers the results of evaluating the evaporation rates and the soil suction for four types of soils, Silica sand, Brown clay, Limestone and Marlstone in Jordan. An experimental approach was conducted for the evaluation of evaporation from a soil column, made up of one single soil type and single gradation, for measured soil properties and climatic conditions. Using the filter paper approach, the matric and total suction were measured for the same samples at different saturation levels. Results show that the evaporation rates start to decline from the potential evaporation to lower rates of actual evaporation. The results also show a direct relationship between the evaporation rate and saturation. In addition, the soil suction test results show an inverse relationship between suction, degrees of saturation, particle size and texture of the soil. It is recommended to use small particle-sized Limestone to reduce evaporation in Jordan. It is also recommended to use Brown clay in deeper soil layers due to its ability to suction water to the surface of unsaturated soils. Finally, further studies could be conducted to investigate the percentage of soils to be mixed with the original ones and the proper soil layering and their effective thicknesses.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11
Published in American Journal of Environmental Protection (Volume 13, Issue 1, February 2024)
Page(s) 1-9
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Jordan, Evaporation Rates, Soil Suction, Soil Type, Soil Gradation

References
[1] FAO. (2014). The State of Food and Agriculture: Innovation in Family Farming. In Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
[2] Barbour, S. L. (1998). Nineteenth Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium: The soil-water characteristic curve: A historical perspective. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 35(5), 873–894. https://doi.org/10.1139/t98-040
[3] Tran, D. T. Q., Chan, D. H., & Fredlund, D. G. (2014). Reassessment of Soil Suction at the Evaporation Rate Reduction Point for Saturated-Unsaturated Soil Surfaces. Geo-Congress 2014: Geo-Characterization and Modeling for Sustainability, 4084–4096. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413272.397
[4] Yang, S.-R., Huang, W.-H., & Chung, S.-H. (2015). Combined effects of temperature and moisture content on soil suction of compacted bentonite. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 23(3), 281–287. https://doi.org/10.6119/JMST-014-0326-2
[5] Bulut, R. (2001). Total and matric suction measurements with the filter paper method. Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. Thesis, Texas A&M University.
[6] Lehmann P., Assouline S., Or D. (2008): Characteristic lengths affecting evaporative drying of porous media. Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, 77(5), 1-16.
[7] Wilson, G. W., Fredlund, D. G., & Barbour, S. L. (1994). Coupled soil-atmosphere modelling for soil evaporation. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 31(2), 151–161. https://doi.org/10.1139/t94-021
[8] Hussary J., Alowaisy A., Yasufuku N., Ishikura R. (2021): Significance of Stage 2 of evaporation in homogeneous sandy soil profiles. The 56 th Anuual Meeting of the Japan National Conference, 12-3-2-08.
[9] Hussary J., Alowaisy A., Yasufuku N., Ishikura R., Abdelhadi M. (2022): Pore structure and falling rate stage of evaporation in homogeneous sandy soil profiles. Soils and Foundations, 62(2), 101108.
[10] Jumana Hussary, Adel Alowaisy, Noriyuki Yasufuku, Ryohei Ishikura, Monther Abdelhadi, Pore structure and falling rate stage of evaporation in homogeneous sandy soil profiles, Soils and Foundations, Volume 62, Issue 2, 2022.
[11] Hillel, D. (1980). Applications of Soil Physics. Academic Press, New York.
[12] Priestley, C. H. B., & Taylor, R. J. (1972). On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters. Monthly Weather Review, 100(2), 81–92. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0081:OTAOSH>2.3.CO;2
[13] Thornthwaite, C. W. (1948). An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review, 38(1), 55–94. https://doi.org/10.2307/210739
[14] Viessman, W., & Lewis, G. (2003). Introduction to Hydrology (5th ed.). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
[15] Agus, S. S., Schanz, T., & Fredlund, D. G. (2010). Measurements of suction versus water content for bentonite–Sand mixtures. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 47(5), 583–594. https://doi.org/10.1139/T09-120
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  • APA Style

    Hadi, M. A., Saada, N., Hussary, J. (2024). Water Evaporation and Soil Suction Measurements of Different Soil Types in Jordan. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 13(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11

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    ACS Style

    Hadi, M. A.; Saada, N.; Hussary, J. Water Evaporation and Soil Suction Measurements of Different Soil Types in Jordan. Am. J. Environ. Prot. 2024, 13(1), 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11

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    AMA Style

    Hadi MA, Saada N, Hussary J. Water Evaporation and Soil Suction Measurements of Different Soil Types in Jordan. Am J Environ Prot. 2024;13(1):1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11,
      author = {Monther Abdel Hadi and Nidhal Saada and Jumana Hussary},
      title = {Water Evaporation and Soil Suction Measurements of Different Soil Types in Jordan},
      journal = {American Journal of Environmental Protection},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-9},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajep.20241301.11},
      abstract = {Jordan is considered a semi-arid region with an average annual precipitation of 111 mm/year. Therefore, it is essential to study and understand the soil properties to reduce water losses and maximize water storage within the land. The current research offers the results of evaluating the evaporation rates and the soil suction for four types of soils, Silica sand, Brown clay, Limestone and Marlstone in Jordan. An experimental approach was conducted for the evaluation of evaporation from a soil column, made up of one single soil type and single gradation, for measured soil properties and climatic conditions. Using the filter paper approach, the matric and total suction were measured for the same samples at different saturation levels. Results show that the evaporation rates start to decline from the potential evaporation to lower rates of actual evaporation. The results also show a direct relationship between the evaporation rate and saturation. In addition, the soil suction test results show an inverse relationship between suction, degrees of saturation, particle size and texture of the soil. It is recommended to use small particle-sized Limestone to reduce evaporation in Jordan. It is also recommended to use Brown clay in deeper soil layers due to its ability to suction water to the surface of unsaturated soils. Finally, further studies could be conducted to investigate the percentage of soils to be mixed with the original ones and the proper soil layering and their effective thicknesses.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Water Evaporation and Soil Suction Measurements of Different Soil Types in Jordan
    AU  - Monther Abdel Hadi
    AU  - Nidhal Saada
    AU  - Jumana Hussary
    Y1  - 2024/01/23
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    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11
    T2  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    JF  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    JO  - American Journal of Environmental Protection
    SP  - 1
    EP  - 9
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2328-5699
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20241301.11
    AB  - Jordan is considered a semi-arid region with an average annual precipitation of 111 mm/year. Therefore, it is essential to study and understand the soil properties to reduce water losses and maximize water storage within the land. The current research offers the results of evaluating the evaporation rates and the soil suction for four types of soils, Silica sand, Brown clay, Limestone and Marlstone in Jordan. An experimental approach was conducted for the evaluation of evaporation from a soil column, made up of one single soil type and single gradation, for measured soil properties and climatic conditions. Using the filter paper approach, the matric and total suction were measured for the same samples at different saturation levels. Results show that the evaporation rates start to decline from the potential evaporation to lower rates of actual evaporation. The results also show a direct relationship between the evaporation rate and saturation. In addition, the soil suction test results show an inverse relationship between suction, degrees of saturation, particle size and texture of the soil. It is recommended to use small particle-sized Limestone to reduce evaporation in Jordan. It is also recommended to use Brown clay in deeper soil layers due to its ability to suction water to the surface of unsaturated soils. Finally, further studies could be conducted to investigate the percentage of soils to be mixed with the original ones and the proper soil layering and their effective thicknesses.
    
    VL  - 13
    IS  - 1
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Author Information
  • Civil Engineering Department, American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan

  • Civil Engineering Department, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan

  • Civil Engineering Department, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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