Large-scale Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of cesium atoms has been observed (T=343K). The technical bottleneck of BEC is very small trapping volume (10^{-8}cm^{3}), which made the number of condensed atoms still stagnant (less than 10^{7}), much smaller than normal condensation (more than 10^{13}), large-scale BEC has never been observed. In BEC experiment, scientists have applied magnetic field (used to trap atoms) and laser (used to cool atoms), but never considered applying electric field, because they think that all kinds of atoms are non-polar atoms. The breakthrough of the bottleneck lies in the application of electric field. In theory, despite 6s and 6p states of cesium are not degenerate, but Cs may be polar atom doesn't conflict with quantum mechanics because it is hydrogen-like atom. When an electric field was applied, Cs atoms become dipoles, therefore large-scale BEC can be observed. BEC experiment of cesium has been redone. From the entropy S=0, critical voltage V_{c}=78V. When V < V_{c}, S > 0; when V > V_{c}, S<0, phase transition occurred. When V=370V, condensates contained up to 2.71×10^{17} atoms, a forty percent improvement over previous results. This BEC is a second-order phase transition because entropy doesn't show discontinuity, from Wikipedia. It is also equivalent to a quantum phase transition. The permanent dipole moment (PDM) of Cs atom has been accurately measured: d_{Cs}=[1.84±0.15(stat) ±0.11 (syst)] ×10^{-8} e.cm. The PDM doesn't arise from the nuclear spin but arises from asymmetrical charge distribution, and it doesn't violate both time reversal and parity symmetry. The maximum induced dipole moment is d_{ind} ≤ 2.12 ×10^{-13}e.cm, which can be ignored. BEC has three main features: BEC is macroscopic occupation of the ground state of the system; BEC is condensation in momentum space; Bose gas would undergo a phase transition. Our experiment is an ideal BEC because it conforms to the three features. BEC belongs to the condensation of quantum gas, when V > V_{c}, almost all Cs atoms (bosons) are in exactly the same state，according to Feynman, “the quantum physics is the same thing as the classical physics”, so our classical theory can explain BEC experiment satisfactorily. Ultra-low temperature is to make Bose gas phase transition, we used critical voltage to achieve phase transition, ultra-low temperature is no longer necessary. Five innovative formulas were first reported in the history of physics, the publication of this article marking mankind will enter a new era of polar atoms.
Published in | American Journal of Modern Physics (Volume 7, Issue 4) |
DOI | 10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11 |
Page(s) | 121-130 |
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited. |
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Presence of Polar Atom, Entropy of Bose Gas, Order Parameter of BEC, BEC as Second-Order Phase Transition, BEC as Quantum Phase Transition, Three Main Features of BEC, Non-zero PDM of Cs Atom
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APA Style
Pei-Lin You. (2018). Large-Scale Bose-Einstein Condensation in an Atomic Gas by Applying an Electric Field. American Journal of Modern Physics, 7(4), 121-130. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11
ACS Style
Pei-Lin You. Large-Scale Bose-Einstein Condensation in an Atomic Gas by Applying an Electric Field. Am. J. Mod. Phys. 2018, 7(4), 121-130. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11
AMA Style
Pei-Lin You. Large-Scale Bose-Einstein Condensation in an Atomic Gas by Applying an Electric Field. Am J Mod Phys. 2018;7(4):121-130. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11
@article{10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11, author = {Pei-Lin You}, title = {Large-Scale Bose-Einstein Condensation in an Atomic Gas by Applying an Electric Field}, journal = {American Journal of Modern Physics}, volume = {7}, number = {4}, pages = {121-130}, doi = {10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11}, url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11}, eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.20180704.11}, abstract = {Large-scale Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of cesium atoms has been observed (T=343K). The technical bottleneck of BEC is very small trapping volume (10-8cm3), which made the number of condensed atoms still stagnant (less than 107), much smaller than normal condensation (more than 1013), large-scale BEC has never been observed. In BEC experiment, scientists have applied magnetic field (used to trap atoms) and laser (used to cool atoms), but never considered applying electric field, because they think that all kinds of atoms are non-polar atoms. The breakthrough of the bottleneck lies in the application of electric field. In theory, despite 6s and 6p states of cesium are not degenerate, but Cs may be polar atom doesn't conflict with quantum mechanics because it is hydrogen-like atom. When an electric field was applied, Cs atoms become dipoles, therefore large-scale BEC can be observed. BEC experiment of cesium has been redone. From the entropy S=0, critical voltage Vc=78V. When V c, S > 0; when V > Vc, S17 atoms, a forty percent improvement over previous results. This BEC is a second-order phase transition because entropy doesn't show discontinuity, from Wikipedia. It is also equivalent to a quantum phase transition. The permanent dipole moment (PDM) of Cs atom has been accurately measured: dCs=[1.84±0.15(stat) ±0.11 (syst)] ×10-8 e.cm. The PDM doesn't arise from the nuclear spin but arises from asymmetrical charge distribution, and it doesn't violate both time reversal and parity symmetry. The maximum induced dipole moment is dind ≤ 2.12 ×10-13e.cm, which can be ignored. BEC has three main features: BEC is macroscopic occupation of the ground state of the system; BEC is condensation in momentum space; Bose gas would undergo a phase transition. Our experiment is an ideal BEC because it conforms to the three features. BEC belongs to the condensation of quantum gas, when V > Vc, almost all Cs atoms (bosons) are in exactly the same state，according to Feynman, “the quantum physics is the same thing as the classical physics”, so our classical theory can explain BEC experiment satisfactorily. Ultra-low temperature is to make Bose gas phase transition, we used critical voltage to achieve phase transition, ultra-low temperature is no longer necessary. Five innovative formulas were first reported in the history of physics, the publication of this article marking mankind will enter a new era of polar atoms.}, year = {2018} }
TY - JOUR T1 - Large-Scale Bose-Einstein Condensation in an Atomic Gas by Applying an Electric Field AU - Pei-Lin You Y1 - 2018/07/13 PY - 2018 N1 - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11 DO - 10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11 T2 - American Journal of Modern Physics JF - American Journal of Modern Physics JO - American Journal of Modern Physics SP - 121 EP - 130 PB - Science Publishing Group SN - 2326-8891 UR - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20180704.11 AB - Large-scale Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of cesium atoms has been observed (T=343K). The technical bottleneck of BEC is very small trapping volume (10-8cm3), which made the number of condensed atoms still stagnant (less than 107), much smaller than normal condensation (more than 1013), large-scale BEC has never been observed. In BEC experiment, scientists have applied magnetic field (used to trap atoms) and laser (used to cool atoms), but never considered applying electric field, because they think that all kinds of atoms are non-polar atoms. The breakthrough of the bottleneck lies in the application of electric field. In theory, despite 6s and 6p states of cesium are not degenerate, but Cs may be polar atom doesn't conflict with quantum mechanics because it is hydrogen-like atom. When an electric field was applied, Cs atoms become dipoles, therefore large-scale BEC can be observed. BEC experiment of cesium has been redone. From the entropy S=0, critical voltage Vc=78V. When V c, S > 0; when V > Vc, S17 atoms, a forty percent improvement over previous results. This BEC is a second-order phase transition because entropy doesn't show discontinuity, from Wikipedia. It is also equivalent to a quantum phase transition. The permanent dipole moment (PDM) of Cs atom has been accurately measured: dCs=[1.84±0.15(stat) ±0.11 (syst)] ×10-8 e.cm. The PDM doesn't arise from the nuclear spin but arises from asymmetrical charge distribution, and it doesn't violate both time reversal and parity symmetry. The maximum induced dipole moment is dind ≤ 2.12 ×10-13e.cm, which can be ignored. BEC has three main features: BEC is macroscopic occupation of the ground state of the system; BEC is condensation in momentum space; Bose gas would undergo a phase transition. Our experiment is an ideal BEC because it conforms to the three features. BEC belongs to the condensation of quantum gas, when V > Vc, almost all Cs atoms (bosons) are in exactly the same state，according to Feynman, “the quantum physics is the same thing as the classical physics”, so our classical theory can explain BEC experiment satisfactorily. Ultra-low temperature is to make Bose gas phase transition, we used critical voltage to achieve phase transition, ultra-low temperature is no longer necessary. Five innovative formulas were first reported in the history of physics, the publication of this article marking mankind will enter a new era of polar atoms. VL - 7 IS - 4 ER -