American Journal of Modern Physics

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Charge-Mass Equivalence leading to Ilectron from the Electron

Received: 15 August 2020    Accepted: 27 August 2020    Published: 14 September 2020
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Abstract

Hydrogen atom was considered as the smallest “bit of matter” until the electron was discovered. Nearly all attributes of the electron have been experimentally measured except for its radius. Electron’s radius has been derived in classical mechanics. The angular momentum of the electron has been understood as a purely quantum mechanical effect. In this paper, we have established an equivalence between the charge and mass of a fundamental particle. This leads to a definition of a complex charge or a complex mass, which combine both charge and mass. Every fundamental particle with charge and mass can be defined by a single complex charge. Interaction of two complex charges leads to the familiar Coulomb and Gravitational forces. It also points out the possibility of a 5th force of nature. By writing the charge and mass of the electron as mass and charge, we come up with a new particle which we have called the ilectron. Some attributes of the ilectron have been derived in this paper and its relation to Planck’s mass and charge are explored. This is a comprehensive paper that has been adapted from material we published in [1-3] for disseminating this information in the Physics community.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200904.12
Published in American Journal of Modern Physics (Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2020)
Page(s) 60-67
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Electron, Ilectron, Complex Mass, Complex Charge, WIMP

References
[1] I. L. Gallon, D. V. Giri and C. E. Baum (Posthumously), The Electron and the Ilectron, Physics Note 22, December 2016, can be downloaded from: http://ece-research.unm.edu/summa/notes/index.html.
[2] D. V. Giri and I. L. Gallon, “Additional Properties of the Ilectron”, Physics Note 23, 9 April 2020, can be downloaded from: http://ece-research.unm.edu/summa/notes/index.html.
[3] D. V. Giri, “Discovery and History of the Electron,” presented at ASIEM 2017, Bengaluru, India, Slides can be downloaded from: https://www.e-fermat.org/communication/giri-comm-asiaem2017-2017-vol24-nov-dec-08/.
[4] J. J. Thompson, “Carriers of negative electricity,” Nobel Lecture, December 1906; can be downloaded from: https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2018/06/thomson-lecture.pdf.
[5] Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, John Wiley & Son.
[6] Jimenez and Campos, A critical examination of the Abraham-Lorentz equation for a radiating charged particle, Am J Phys 55(11) Nov 1987.
[7] J McConnell, Quantum Particle Dynamics, North Holland Publishing Company, 1958.
[8] P. A. M. Dirac, (1928). "The Quantum Theory of the Electron" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 117 (778): 610–624. Bibcode: 1928RSPSA. 117. 610D. doi: 10.1098/rspa.1928.0023. JSTOR 94981.
[9] W. Heitler, The Quantum Theory of Radiation, Clarendon Press, 1954, Chapter 1, p 15.
[10] I. L. Gallon, Extending Classical Physics into Quantum Domain, Physics Note 21, 3 June 2013. Can be downloaded from: http://ece-research.unm.edu/summa/notes/Physics/physicsNote22.pdf.
[11] Erber, The Classical Theories of Radiation Reaction, Fortschritte der Physik 9, 343-392 (1961).
[12] M. Strassler, “Of Particular Significance,” May 13, 2013, can be downloaded from: https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/the-known-forces-of-nature/the-strength-of-the-known-forces/.
[13] Dirac, Classical theory of radiating electrons, Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1938.
[14] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_mass.
[15] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_units.
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  • APA Style

    D. V. Giri, Ian Leonard Gallon, Carl Edward Baum. (2020). Charge-Mass Equivalence leading to Ilectron from the Electron. American Journal of Modern Physics, 9(4), 60-67. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20200904.12

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    ACS Style

    D. V. Giri; Ian Leonard Gallon; Carl Edward Baum. Charge-Mass Equivalence leading to Ilectron from the Electron. Am. J. Mod. Phys. 2020, 9(4), 60-67. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200904.12

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    AMA Style

    D. V. Giri, Ian Leonard Gallon, Carl Edward Baum. Charge-Mass Equivalence leading to Ilectron from the Electron. Am J Mod Phys. 2020;9(4):60-67. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200904.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajmp.20200904.12,
      author = {D. V. Giri and Ian Leonard Gallon and Carl Edward Baum},
      title = {Charge-Mass Equivalence leading to Ilectron from the Electron},
      journal = {American Journal of Modern Physics},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {60-67},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajmp.20200904.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20200904.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.20200904.12},
      abstract = {Hydrogen atom was considered as the smallest “bit of matter” until the electron was discovered. Nearly all attributes of the electron have been experimentally measured except for its radius. Electron’s radius has been derived in classical mechanics. The angular momentum of the electron has been understood as a purely quantum mechanical effect. In this paper, we have established an equivalence between the charge and mass of a fundamental particle. This leads to a definition of a complex charge or a complex mass, which combine both charge and mass. Every fundamental particle with charge and mass can be defined by a single complex charge. Interaction of two complex charges leads to the familiar Coulomb and Gravitational forces. It also points out the possibility of a 5th force of nature. By writing the charge and mass of the electron as mass and charge, we come up with a new particle which we have called the ilectron. Some attributes of the ilectron have been derived in this paper and its relation to Planck’s mass and charge are explored. This is a comprehensive paper that has been adapted from material we published in [1-3] for disseminating this information in the Physics community.},
     year = {2020}
    }
    

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    AB  - Hydrogen atom was considered as the smallest “bit of matter” until the electron was discovered. Nearly all attributes of the electron have been experimentally measured except for its radius. Electron’s radius has been derived in classical mechanics. The angular momentum of the electron has been understood as a purely quantum mechanical effect. In this paper, we have established an equivalence between the charge and mass of a fundamental particle. This leads to a definition of a complex charge or a complex mass, which combine both charge and mass. Every fundamental particle with charge and mass can be defined by a single complex charge. Interaction of two complex charges leads to the familiar Coulomb and Gravitational forces. It also points out the possibility of a 5th force of nature. By writing the charge and mass of the electron as mass and charge, we come up with a new particle which we have called the ilectron. Some attributes of the ilectron have been derived in this paper and its relation to Planck’s mass and charge are explored. This is a comprehensive paper that has been adapted from material we published in [1-3] for disseminating this information in the Physics community.
    VL  - 9
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Author Information
  • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA

  • Retired, Bridport, Dorset, UK

  • Formerly at Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA

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