In this paper, two fundamental problems of particle physics are studied theoretically. The first one is: to solve the problem of establishing general quantum number constrained equation, the symmetry transformation mechanism of charge eigenstates for elementary particles is adopted, and the general quantum number constrained equations are established, which are applicable to physical particles. For hadrons, an equation is completely consistent with Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula. For leptons, the lepton quantum numbers are exactly the solutions of an equation, which is just the lepton quantum number constrained equation. The second problem is: to solve the problem of understanding singularity and calculating singular numbers, a hypothesis that a composite particle may has virtual structure is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the singular particles must be composite particles, and have virtual structures. In a virtual structure, the particles and antiparticles of component particles can form particle-antiparticle pairs, which have great influence such as improving mass and changing life of composite particles. Therefore, the composite particle with particle-antiparticle pairs in its virtual structure is singular particle, and the singular number is the number of particle-antiparticle pairs. These two theoretical results are in good agreement with the already achieved experimental results of particle physics, can explain the related phenomena of physical particles from a deeper physical mechanism, and theoretically predict the existence of singular leptons and several new singular hadrons.
Published in | American Journal of Modern Physics (Volume 9, Issue 6) |
DOI | 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12 |
Page(s) | 84-90 |
Creative Commons |
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited. |
Copyright |
Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group |
Particle Physics, Symmetric Transformation, Quantum Number, Elementary Particle, Singular Particle, Singular Number, Hadron, Lepton
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APA Style
Hua Ma. (2020). A Theoretical Explanation on Gell-Mann-Nishijima Formula with Singular Number and the Establishment of Lepton Quantum Number Constrained Equation. American Journal of Modern Physics, 9(6), 84-90. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12
ACS Style
Hua Ma. A Theoretical Explanation on Gell-Mann-Nishijima Formula with Singular Number and the Establishment of Lepton Quantum Number Constrained Equation. Am. J. Mod. Phys. 2020, 9(6), 84-90. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12
AMA Style
Hua Ma. A Theoretical Explanation on Gell-Mann-Nishijima Formula with Singular Number and the Establishment of Lepton Quantum Number Constrained Equation. Am J Mod Phys. 2020;9(6):84-90. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12
@article{10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12, author = {Hua Ma}, title = {A Theoretical Explanation on Gell-Mann-Nishijima Formula with Singular Number and the Establishment of Lepton Quantum Number Constrained Equation}, journal = {American Journal of Modern Physics}, volume = {9}, number = {6}, pages = {84-90}, doi = {10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12}, url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12}, eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.20200906.12}, abstract = {In this paper, two fundamental problems of particle physics are studied theoretically. The first one is: to solve the problem of establishing general quantum number constrained equation, the symmetry transformation mechanism of charge eigenstates for elementary particles is adopted, and the general quantum number constrained equations are established, which are applicable to physical particles. For hadrons, an equation is completely consistent with Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula. For leptons, the lepton quantum numbers are exactly the solutions of an equation, which is just the lepton quantum number constrained equation. The second problem is: to solve the problem of understanding singularity and calculating singular numbers, a hypothesis that a composite particle may has virtual structure is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the singular particles must be composite particles, and have virtual structures. In a virtual structure, the particles and antiparticles of component particles can form particle-antiparticle pairs, which have great influence such as improving mass and changing life of composite particles. Therefore, the composite particle with particle-antiparticle pairs in its virtual structure is singular particle, and the singular number is the number of particle-antiparticle pairs. These two theoretical results are in good agreement with the already achieved experimental results of particle physics, can explain the related phenomena of physical particles from a deeper physical mechanism, and theoretically predict the existence of singular leptons and several new singular hadrons.}, year = {2020} }
TY - JOUR T1 - A Theoretical Explanation on Gell-Mann-Nishijima Formula with Singular Number and the Establishment of Lepton Quantum Number Constrained Equation AU - Hua Ma Y1 - 2020/12/08 PY - 2020 N1 - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12 DO - 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12 T2 - American Journal of Modern Physics JF - American Journal of Modern Physics JO - American Journal of Modern Physics SP - 84 EP - 90 PB - Science Publishing Group SN - 2326-8891 UR - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12 AB - In this paper, two fundamental problems of particle physics are studied theoretically. The first one is: to solve the problem of establishing general quantum number constrained equation, the symmetry transformation mechanism of charge eigenstates for elementary particles is adopted, and the general quantum number constrained equations are established, which are applicable to physical particles. For hadrons, an equation is completely consistent with Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula. For leptons, the lepton quantum numbers are exactly the solutions of an equation, which is just the lepton quantum number constrained equation. The second problem is: to solve the problem of understanding singularity and calculating singular numbers, a hypothesis that a composite particle may has virtual structure is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the singular particles must be composite particles, and have virtual structures. In a virtual structure, the particles and antiparticles of component particles can form particle-antiparticle pairs, which have great influence such as improving mass and changing life of composite particles. Therefore, the composite particle with particle-antiparticle pairs in its virtual structure is singular particle, and the singular number is the number of particle-antiparticle pairs. These two theoretical results are in good agreement with the already achieved experimental results of particle physics, can explain the related phenomena of physical particles from a deeper physical mechanism, and theoretically predict the existence of singular leptons and several new singular hadrons. VL - 9 IS - 6 ER -