International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry

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Effect of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.L.L.) Seeds on Some Fluconazole-Resistant and Biofilm-Forming Genes on Strains of Candida albicans strains (C1, C2, CAF2 and CAI4)

Received: Mar. 21, 2023    Accepted: Jul. 03, 2023    Published: Sep. 27, 2023
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Abstract

The rise in drug resistance has become a serious health issue globally; as such the world health organization has since 1981 encouraged nations on the search for phytomedicines. Nigella sativa L. extracts have been widely studied and proved effective in the treatment of both metabolic and infectious diseases. This study was carried out to determine the effect of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) at molecular level (fluconazole-resistant genes in Candida albicans’ strains). Aqueous and metabolic extracts of the N sativa were prepared, while the oil extract was obtained from herbal shop and their phytochemical contents were determined. Candida albicans strains C1 (wild type), C2 a randomly selected clinical isolate and CAI4 and CAF2 (homogenous and heterogenous URA gene deficient respectively) strains were used for this study. 28 out of 50 (56%) Candida albicans isolated from HVS of suspected PID patients and 3 laboratory strains were resistant to fluconazole. Fluconazole resistance pattern and mode of action of each extract on the different strains were studied. Genes implicated in antifungal resistance and biofilm formation in C. albicans (EGR11, MDS3 and MDR1) were amplified (PCR), and the effects of the three extracts of N. sativa on the genes were studied. The aqueous extract had the highest concentrations of the phytochemicals followed by the methanolic extract and then the oil. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were found to have fungicidal effect at 100mg/ml and 250mg/ml respectively and oil at 100% only. While the oil and some concentration of the methanolic extracts have fungistatic effects. CAI4 and CAF2strains showed resistance to all the concentrations of the aqueous and methanolic extracts. The PCR result showed variation genes implicated in stress and pathogenicity, they were modulated on exposure to the plant extracts. It is recommended that the aqueous and oil of N. sativa be used in the treatment of multidrug resistant Candida infections alongside conventional antimicrobials. More extensive study should be carried out on the effect of the seed extracts of N. sativa on CAF2 strains CAI4 strains to study then role of URA3 gene on antifungal resistanceand mutagenesis in C. albicans.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12
Published in International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry ( Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2023 )
Page(s) 43-55
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Drug, Resistant, Fluconazone, Treatment, Infectious, Disease, Black Cumin, Candida Albicans

References
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    Hadiza Idi Ali, Zahra’u Umar, Nkechi Eucharia Egbe, Muhammad Sani Abdulsalami. (2023). Effect of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.L.L.) Seeds on Some Fluconazole-Resistant and Biofilm-Forming Genes on Strains of Candida albicans strains (C1, C2, CAF2 and CAI4). International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry, 9(4), 43-55. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12

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    ACS Style

    Hadiza Idi Ali; Zahra’u Umar; Nkechi Eucharia Egbe; Muhammad Sani Abdulsalami. Effect of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.L.L.) Seeds on Some Fluconazole-Resistant and Biofilm-Forming Genes on Strains of Candida albicans strains (C1, C2, CAF2 and CAI4). Int. J. Pharm. Chem. 2023, 9(4), 43-55. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12

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    AMA Style

    Hadiza Idi Ali, Zahra’u Umar, Nkechi Eucharia Egbe, Muhammad Sani Abdulsalami. Effect of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.L.L.) Seeds on Some Fluconazole-Resistant and Biofilm-Forming Genes on Strains of Candida albicans strains (C1, C2, CAF2 and CAI4). Int J Pharm Chem. 2023;9(4):43-55. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12,
      author = {Hadiza Idi Ali and Zahra’u Umar and Nkechi Eucharia Egbe and Muhammad Sani Abdulsalami},
      title = {Effect of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.L.L.) Seeds on Some Fluconazole-Resistant and Biofilm-Forming Genes on Strains of Candida albicans strains (C1, C2, CAF2 and CAI4)},
      journal = {International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {43-55},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijpc.20230904.12},
      abstract = {The rise in drug resistance has become a serious health issue globally; as such the world health organization has since 1981 encouraged nations on the search for phytomedicines. Nigella sativa L. extracts have been widely studied and proved effective in the treatment of both metabolic and infectious diseases. This study was carried out to determine the effect of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) at molecular level (fluconazole-resistant genes in Candida albicans’ strains). Aqueous and metabolic extracts of the N sativa were prepared, while the oil extract was obtained from herbal shop and their phytochemical contents were determined. Candida albicans strains C1 (wild type), C2 a randomly selected clinical isolate and CAI4 and CAF2 (homogenous and heterogenous URA gene deficient respectively) strains were used for this study. 28 out of 50 (56%) Candida albicans isolated from HVS of suspected PID patients and 3 laboratory strains were resistant to fluconazole. Fluconazole resistance pattern and mode of action of each extract on the different strains were studied. Genes implicated in antifungal resistance and biofilm formation in C. albicans (EGR11, MDS3 and MDR1) were amplified (PCR), and the effects of the three extracts of N. sativa on the genes were studied. The aqueous extract had the highest concentrations of the phytochemicals followed by the methanolic extract and then the oil. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were found to have fungicidal effect at 100mg/ml and 250mg/ml respectively and oil at 100% only. While the oil and some concentration of the methanolic extracts have fungistatic effects. CAI4 and CAF2strains showed resistance to all the concentrations of the aqueous and methanolic extracts. The PCR result showed variation genes implicated in stress and pathogenicity, they were modulated on exposure to the plant extracts. It is recommended that the aqueous and oil of N. sativa be used in the treatment of multidrug resistant Candida infections alongside conventional antimicrobials. More extensive study should be carried out on the effect of the seed extracts of N. sativa on CAF2 strains CAI4 strains to study then role of URA3 gene on antifungal resistanceand mutagenesis in C. albicans.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Effect of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.L.L.) Seeds on Some Fluconazole-Resistant and Biofilm-Forming Genes on Strains of Candida albicans strains (C1, C2, CAF2 and CAI4)
    AU  - Hadiza Idi Ali
    AU  - Zahra’u Umar
    AU  - Nkechi Eucharia Egbe
    AU  - Muhammad Sani Abdulsalami
    Y1  - 2023/09/27
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12
    T2  - International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry
    JF  - International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry
    JO  - International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry
    SP  - 43
    EP  - 55
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2575-5749
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijpc.20230904.12
    AB  - The rise in drug resistance has become a serious health issue globally; as such the world health organization has since 1981 encouraged nations on the search for phytomedicines. Nigella sativa L. extracts have been widely studied and proved effective in the treatment of both metabolic and infectious diseases. This study was carried out to determine the effect of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) at molecular level (fluconazole-resistant genes in Candida albicans’ strains). Aqueous and metabolic extracts of the N sativa were prepared, while the oil extract was obtained from herbal shop and their phytochemical contents were determined. Candida albicans strains C1 (wild type), C2 a randomly selected clinical isolate and CAI4 and CAF2 (homogenous and heterogenous URA gene deficient respectively) strains were used for this study. 28 out of 50 (56%) Candida albicans isolated from HVS of suspected PID patients and 3 laboratory strains were resistant to fluconazole. Fluconazole resistance pattern and mode of action of each extract on the different strains were studied. Genes implicated in antifungal resistance and biofilm formation in C. albicans (EGR11, MDS3 and MDR1) were amplified (PCR), and the effects of the three extracts of N. sativa on the genes were studied. The aqueous extract had the highest concentrations of the phytochemicals followed by the methanolic extract and then the oil. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were found to have fungicidal effect at 100mg/ml and 250mg/ml respectively and oil at 100% only. While the oil and some concentration of the methanolic extracts have fungistatic effects. CAI4 and CAF2strains showed resistance to all the concentrations of the aqueous and methanolic extracts. The PCR result showed variation genes implicated in stress and pathogenicity, they were modulated on exposure to the plant extracts. It is recommended that the aqueous and oil of N. sativa be used in the treatment of multidrug resistant Candida infections alongside conventional antimicrobials. More extensive study should be carried out on the effect of the seed extracts of N. sativa on CAF2 strains CAI4 strains to study then role of URA3 gene on antifungal resistanceand mutagenesis in C. albicans.
    VL  - 9
    IS  - 4
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

  • Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria; Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

  • Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

  • Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

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