Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics

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Prediction of Fetal Growth by Measuring the Placental Thickness Using Ultrasonography

Received: 5 February 2014    Accepted: 8 April 2014    Published: 10 April 2014
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Abstract

Ultrasound growth parameters including Femur Length (FL), and Biparietal Diameter (BPD) are widely used in Sudan for determining the fetal age. The Abdomen Circumference (AC) is also used along with BPD in determining fetal weight. Measuring placental thickness along with these parameters could be of great value. The main objective of this study was to determine the normal thickness of placenta during second and third trimesters in Sudanese pregnant ladies in order to predict the growth of the fetus, and to understand the relation between the placental thickness and growth parameters (BPD and FL). Fifty three pregnant Sudanese ladies were included in this study. All were normal cases of ages between 20 and 43 years old, in the second and third trimesters checking for antenatal routine ultrasound examinations at Military and Omdurman Maternal hospitals. Patients with history of Diabetes, Hydrops, Hypertension or liability to fetal anomalies were excluded from the study. The BPD, and FL, were measured and then correlated with Gestational Age (GA) for each lady; the placental thickness was measured in the longitudinal section at the insertion of umbilical cord using ultrasonography. The placental thickness was found in the normal mean range of values (20.7±2.1 and 36.2±4.7), in second and third trimester respectively. Normal values of placental thickness in normal Sudanese pregnant ladies with singleton fetuses are in the range of 25 to 45mm in the 3rd trimester, and between 18 to 24mm in the second trimester. A linear relationship between placental thickness and BPD, FL and gestational ages acquired by them in both 2nd and 3rd trimesters. No significant differences were found between ages derived from FL and BPD and PT, and a linear relationship was noted with the maternal age. An equation for gestational age prediction using PT was established. Placenta Thickness had a great value in prediction of fetal health and growth parameters sonographically.

DOI 10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14
Published in Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2014)
Page(s) 26-31
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Placental Thickness, Gestational Age, Femur Length, BPD

References
[1] K.L .Moore. The placenta. In: K.L .Moore, Persaud TVN, editors the developing human: clinically oriented embryology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders993. p. 110–8.
[2] N .C .Smith and A .P. M Smith, Obstetric and Gynecological ultrasound made easy, second edition, London, Elsevier, 2006:123.
[3] La Torre et al, Placental Enlargement in Women with Primary Maternal Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Associated with Fetal and Neonatal Disease, Clinical Infectious Diseases CID, 2006; 43:994–1000.
[4] Elchalal et al, Sonographically Thick Placenta: a Marker for Increased Perinatal Risk—a Prospective Cross-sectional Study, Placenta, Jerusalem, 2000, 21: 268-272
[5] Ohagwu, C. C et al, Relationship between placental thickness and growth parameters in normal Nigerian foetuse, African Journal of Biotechnology,2009, 8 (2):133-138
[6] J .Gardosi, R.T. Geirrson. Routine ultrasound is the method of choice for dating pregnancy. Br JObstet Gynecol 1998;105:933–6
[7] F.P .Hadlock, R.L Deter, R.B Harrist, S.K Park. Estimating fetal age: computer-assisted analysis of multiple fetal growth parameters. Radiology 1984;152:497– 501
[8] J .Villar, J.M. Belizan. The timing factor in the pathophysiology of the intrauterine growth retardation syndrome. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1982;137:499–510.
[9] J .Gardosi, A .Chang, B .Kalyan, D .Sahota, E .Symonds. Customized antenatal growth charts.Lancet 1992;339:283– 7
[10] J.J. Duvekot, E.C. Cheriex, F.A Pieters, L.L. Peeters. Severely impaired fetal growth is preceded by maternal hemodynamic mal adaptation in very early pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1995;74:693–7
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    Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla Balla, Magdolein Siddig Ahmed, Caroline Edward Ayad, Abdelmoneim Saeed Ahmed. (2014). Prediction of Fetal Growth by Measuring the Placental Thickness Using Ultrasonography. Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2(2), 26-31. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14

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    Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla Balla; Magdolein Siddig Ahmed; Caroline Edward Ayad; Abdelmoneim Saeed Ahmed. Prediction of Fetal Growth by Measuring the Placental Thickness Using Ultrasonography. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 2014, 2(2), 26-31. doi: 10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14

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    AMA Style

    Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla Balla, Magdolein Siddig Ahmed, Caroline Edward Ayad, Abdelmoneim Saeed Ahmed. Prediction of Fetal Growth by Measuring the Placental Thickness Using Ultrasonography. J Gynecol Obstet. 2014;2(2):26-31. doi: 10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14

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  • @article{10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14,
      author = {Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla Balla and Magdolein Siddig Ahmed and Caroline Edward Ayad and Abdelmoneim Saeed Ahmed},
      title = {Prediction of Fetal Growth by Measuring the Placental Thickness Using Ultrasonography},
      journal = {Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {26-31},
      doi = {10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.jgo.20140202.14},
      abstract = {Ultrasound growth parameters including Femur Length (FL), and Biparietal Diameter (BPD) are widely used in Sudan for determining the fetal age. The Abdomen Circumference (AC) is also used along with BPD in determining fetal weight. Measuring placental thickness along with these parameters could be of great value. The main objective of this study was to determine the normal thickness of placenta during second and third trimesters in Sudanese pregnant ladies in order to predict the growth of the fetus, and to understand the relation between the placental thickness and growth parameters (BPD and FL). Fifty three pregnant Sudanese ladies were included in this study. All were normal cases of ages between 20 and 43 years old, in the second and third trimesters checking for antenatal routine ultrasound examinations at Military and Omdurman Maternal hospitals. Patients with history of Diabetes, Hydrops, Hypertension or liability to fetal anomalies were excluded from the study. The BPD, and FL, were measured and then correlated with Gestational Age (GA) for each lady; the placental thickness was measured in the longitudinal section at the insertion of umbilical cord using ultrasonography. The placental thickness was found in the normal mean range of values (20.7±2.1 and 36.2±4.7), in second and third trimester respectively. Normal values of placental thickness in normal Sudanese pregnant ladies with singleton fetuses are in the range of 25 to 45mm in the 3rd trimester, and between 18 to 24mm in the second trimester. A linear relationship between placental thickness and BPD, FL and gestational ages acquired by them in both 2nd and 3rd trimesters. No significant differences were found between ages derived from FL and BPD and PT, and a linear relationship was noted with the maternal age. An equation for gestational age prediction using PT was established. Placenta Thickness had a great value in prediction of fetal health and growth parameters sonographically.},
     year = {2014}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Prediction of Fetal Growth by Measuring the Placental Thickness Using Ultrasonography
    AU  - Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla Balla
    AU  - Magdolein Siddig Ahmed
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    DO  - 10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14
    T2  - Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
    JF  - Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
    JO  - Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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    EP  - 31
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2376-7820
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jgo.20140202.14
    AB  - Ultrasound growth parameters including Femur Length (FL), and Biparietal Diameter (BPD) are widely used in Sudan for determining the fetal age. The Abdomen Circumference (AC) is also used along with BPD in determining fetal weight. Measuring placental thickness along with these parameters could be of great value. The main objective of this study was to determine the normal thickness of placenta during second and third trimesters in Sudanese pregnant ladies in order to predict the growth of the fetus, and to understand the relation between the placental thickness and growth parameters (BPD and FL). Fifty three pregnant Sudanese ladies were included in this study. All were normal cases of ages between 20 and 43 years old, in the second and third trimesters checking for antenatal routine ultrasound examinations at Military and Omdurman Maternal hospitals. Patients with history of Diabetes, Hydrops, Hypertension or liability to fetal anomalies were excluded from the study. The BPD, and FL, were measured and then correlated with Gestational Age (GA) for each lady; the placental thickness was measured in the longitudinal section at the insertion of umbilical cord using ultrasonography. The placental thickness was found in the normal mean range of values (20.7±2.1 and 36.2±4.7), in second and third trimester respectively. Normal values of placental thickness in normal Sudanese pregnant ladies with singleton fetuses are in the range of 25 to 45mm in the 3rd trimester, and between 18 to 24mm in the second trimester. A linear relationship between placental thickness and BPD, FL and gestational ages acquired by them in both 2nd and 3rd trimesters. No significant differences were found between ages derived from FL and BPD and PT, and a linear relationship was noted with the maternal age. An equation for gestational age prediction using PT was established. Placenta Thickness had a great value in prediction of fetal health and growth parameters sonographically.
    VL  - 2
    IS  - 2
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Sudan University of Science and Technology, College Of Medical Radiological Science, Khartoum, Sudan

  • Radiology Department, National University, Khartoum, Sudan

  • Sudan University of Science and Technology, College Of Medical Radiological Science, Khartoum, Sudan

  • Radiology Department, National University, Khartoum, Sudan

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