American Journal of Modern Physics

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Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene

Received: 11 June 2014    Accepted: 9 July 2014    Published: 20 July 2014
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Abstract

In this work, we investigate the Raman spectrum of gated monolayer and bilayer graphene devices. We used Raman spectroscopy with three different excitation wavelengths: (488nm, 514nm and 633nm). After producing graphene sheets by scotch tape technique, Raman spectrometry used to distinguish between bilayer, mono layer and other few layer of graphene. We contact the wires on the flakes using micro-soldering method then we applied gate voltage on monolayer and bilayer graphene and investigate the changes in peak of the Raman spectra in different wavelengths in different voltages. Raman spectroscopy probes phonons as well as electronic states. If the electronic dispersion changes, the Raman spectrum will also changes. The shifts of the Raman spectra peaks of the monolayer and bilayer are explained in the current work. Charge carrier concentration as a function of gate voltage in gated graphene is shown as well as the position of the G peak and 2D peak graphene versus gate voltage. For monolayer devices we observed the expected behavior for doped devices. For bilayer devices, we present a comparison between the theoretical model and our experimental results.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13
Published in American Journal of Modern Physics (Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014)
Page(s) 168-172
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Monolayer Graphene, Bilayer Graphene, Raman Spectroscopy, Nanoelectronics

References
[1] Antonio.H. Castro Neto, ‘The carbon new age’,Materialstoday volume 13 ,2010.
[2] C. Casiraghi, S. Pisana, k. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim and A. C. Ferrari, "Raman fingerprint of charged impurities in graphene" ,Applied physics letters 91, 233108,2007.
[3] C. Cariraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutynyan, T. Gokus, K. S. novoselov and A.C. Ferrari, Reyligh imaging of graphene and graphene layers, Nano letters, volum7, no9, 2711-2717, 2007.
[4] Michele Lazzeri and Francesco Mauri, Nonadiabatic Kohn Anomaly in a Doped Graphene Monolayer, Physical Review Letters, 97(26):29, 32, 2006.
[5] Gregory F Schneider, Victor E Calado, HennyZandbergen, Lieven M K Vandersypen, and Cees Dekker, ‘Wedging transfer of nanostructures’ Nano letters, 10(5):1912,2010.
[6] CaglarO.Girit and A. Zettl, "Soldering to a single atomic layer", Applied physics letter 91, 198512 ,2007.
[7] Paola Gava, Michele Lazzeri, A. Marco and FrancescoMauri , "Probing the elevtrostatic environment of bilayer graphene using Raman spectra", Physycal review B80, 155422 ,2009.
[8] A.Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakaraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari and A. K. Sood, "Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor", Nano Letters 67 ,2008.
[9] J. Yan et al, , Electric Field Effect Tuning of Electron-Phonon Coupling in Graphene,. Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 136804 ,2008.
[10] D.L. Mafra,P. Gava,L.M. Malard,R.S. Borges,G.G. Silva,J.A Leon,F. Plentz,F. Mauri,M.A. Pimenta, Characterizing intrinsic charges in top gated bilayer graphene device by Raman spectroscopy,Carbon 50,2012
[11] A. Das, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. Pisana, A. Sood and C. Ferrari, "Observation of distinct electron-phonon coupling in gated bilayer graphene, Physical Review 101,257401 , 2008.
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  • APA Style

    Maedeh Arvani, Mahdi Aghajanloo. (2014). Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene. American Journal of Modern Physics, 3(4), 168-172. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13

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    ACS Style

    Maedeh Arvani; Mahdi Aghajanloo. Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene. Am. J. Mod. Phys. 2014, 3(4), 168-172. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13

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    AMA Style

    Maedeh Arvani, Mahdi Aghajanloo. Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene. Am J Mod Phys. 2014;3(4):168-172. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13,
      author = {Maedeh Arvani and Mahdi Aghajanloo},
      title = {Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene},
      journal = {American Journal of Modern Physics},
      volume = {3},
      number = {4},
      pages = {168-172},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.20140304.13},
      abstract = {In this work, we investigate the Raman spectrum of gated monolayer and bilayer graphene devices. We used Raman spectroscopy with three different excitation wavelengths: (488nm, 514nm and 633nm). After producing graphene sheets by scotch tape technique, Raman spectrometry used to distinguish between bilayer, mono layer and other few layer of graphene. We contact the wires on the flakes using micro-soldering method then we applied gate voltage on monolayer and bilayer graphene and investigate the changes in peak of the Raman spectra in different wavelengths in different voltages. Raman spectroscopy probes phonons as well as electronic states. If the electronic dispersion changes, the Raman spectrum will also changes. The shifts of the Raman spectra peaks of the monolayer and bilayer are explained in the current work. Charge carrier concentration as a function of gate voltage in gated graphene is shown as well as the position of the G peak and 2D peak graphene versus gate voltage. For monolayer devices we observed the expected behavior for doped devices. For bilayer devices, we present a comparison between the theoretical model and our experimental results.},
     year = {2014}
    }
    

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    T1  - Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene
    AU  - Maedeh Arvani
    AU  - Mahdi Aghajanloo
    Y1  - 2014/07/20
    PY  - 2014
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13
    T2  - American Journal of Modern Physics
    JF  - American Journal of Modern Physics
    JO  - American Journal of Modern Physics
    SP  - 168
    EP  - 172
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2326-8891
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13
    AB  - In this work, we investigate the Raman spectrum of gated monolayer and bilayer graphene devices. We used Raman spectroscopy with three different excitation wavelengths: (488nm, 514nm and 633nm). After producing graphene sheets by scotch tape technique, Raman spectrometry used to distinguish between bilayer, mono layer and other few layer of graphene. We contact the wires on the flakes using micro-soldering method then we applied gate voltage on monolayer and bilayer graphene and investigate the changes in peak of the Raman spectra in different wavelengths in different voltages. Raman spectroscopy probes phonons as well as electronic states. If the electronic dispersion changes, the Raman spectrum will also changes. The shifts of the Raman spectra peaks of the monolayer and bilayer are explained in the current work. Charge carrier concentration as a function of gate voltage in gated graphene is shown as well as the position of the G peak and 2D peak graphene versus gate voltage. For monolayer devices we observed the expected behavior for doped devices. For bilayer devices, we present a comparison between the theoretical model and our experimental results.
    VL  - 3
    IS  - 4
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 10, 33720 Tampere, Finland

  • Halmstad University, Kiristian Vag 3, 30118, Halmstad, Sweden

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