American Journal of Modern Physics

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Santilli Synthesis of the Neutron According to Hadronic Mechanics

Received: 17 July 2015    Accepted: 18 July 2015    Published: 18 May 2016
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Abstract

In 1920 H. Rutherford conjectured that neutron is a compressed hydrogen atom in the core of the stars. W. Pauli noted that such synthesis of neutron violates the conservation of the angular momentum. Therefore, E. Fermi proposed emission of massless particle, called "neutrino". However, R.M. Santilli more recently noted that, even though the angular angular momentum would be conserved, the neutrino hypothesis does not allow non-relativistic quantum mechanics to be valid because the rest energy of the neutron is bigger than the sum of the rest energies of the proton and electron, under these conditions Schrodinger equation becomes inconsistent. Similarly, Santilli showed that relativistic quantum mechanics is also inapplicable (rather than violated) because, even though exactly valid for the electron at large distance from the proton in the hydrogen atom, the celebrated Dirac's equation is clearly inapplicable for the representation of electron when immersed inside the proton. In this paper, we study Santilli's decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental research, first for the construction of the covering hadronic mechanics, and then the resulting numerically exact and time invariant representation at the non-relativistic and relativistic levels of "all" chararcteristics of the neutron in its synthesis from a proton and an electron. In particular, we show that, within said covering context, the representation of proton as an extended particle implies the existence of an orbital angular momentum of the electron within the hyperdense proton which is totally non-existence for quantum mechanics, under which the total angular momentum is conserved without any need for the conjectural neutrino. We finally study Santilli's suggestive hypothesis of the "etherino" as a longitudinal impulse (rather than particle) from the ether as a universal substratum that delivers missing energy for the synthesis of the neutron.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajmp.2016050201.13
Published in American Journal of Modern Physics (Volume 5, Issue 2-1, March 2016)

This article belongs to the Special Issue Issue II: Foundations of Hadronic Mechanics

Page(s) 37-45
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Neutron, Binding Energy, Isoelectron, Hulthen Potential, Lie-Santilli Isoalgebras

References
[1] H. Rutherford, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 97, 374 (1920).
[2] J. Chadwick, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 136, 692 (1932).
[3] W. Pauli, Handbuch der Physik, 24, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1933.
[4] E. Fermi, Nuclear Physics, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1949.
[5] R. M. Santilli, Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry, Vol. I-V, International Academic Press, Palm Harbor, U.S.A., 2008.
[6] R. M. Santilli, "Apparent Consistency of Rutherford's Hypothesis on Neutron as a Compressed Hydrogen Atom", Hadronic J. 13, 513-531(1900).
[7] R. M. Santilli, "Apparent Consistency of Rutherford's Hypothesis on Neutron Structure via Hadronic Generalization of Quantum Mechanics-I: Nonrelativistic Treatment", in ICTP-1991, International Academic Press, Palm Harbor, Florida, 1992.
[8] I. Gandzha and J. Kadeisvily, New Science for A New Era, Sankata Printing Press, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2001.http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/ RMS
[9] R. M. Santilli,Lie-admissible Approach to the Hadronic Structure, Volume I: Non-applicability of the Galilei and Einstein Relativities in the series Monographs in Theoretical Physics, Hadronic Press, Palm Harbor, Florida, 1978.
[10] R. M. Santilli, Lie-admissible Approach to the Hadronic Structure, Volume II: Coverings of the Galilei and Einstein Relativities in the series Monographs in Theoretical Physics, Hadronic Press, Palm Harbor, Florida, 1981.
[11] R. M. Santilli, ÓNonlocal-Integral Isotopies of Differential Calculus, Mechanics and Geometries,Ó in Isotopies of Contemporary Mathematical Structures, Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. Vol. 42, 7-82 (1996), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-37.pdf
[12] R. M. Santilli, "The etherino and/or the neutrino hypothesis", Foundation of Physics, 37, 670 (2007).
[13] C. Borghi, C. Giori C. and A. Dall'Olio, Communications of CENUFPE, 8(1969) and 25 (1971).
[14] C. Borghi, C. Giori C. and A. Dall'Olio, (in Russian), Phys. Atomic Nuclei, 56, 205 (1993).
[15] R. M. Santilli, "Apparent Confirmation of Don Borghi's Experiment toward the Synthesis of Neutron from Protons and Electrons", Hadronic Journal, textbf30, 709 (1997).
[16] R. M. Santilli, The Synthesis of the Neutron, http://www.neutronstructure.org /neutronsynthesis.htm.
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    Chandrakant S. Burande. (2016). Santilli Synthesis of the Neutron According to Hadronic Mechanics. American Journal of Modern Physics, 5(2-1), 37-45. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.2016050201.13

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    ACS Style

    Chandrakant S. Burande. Santilli Synthesis of the Neutron According to Hadronic Mechanics. Am. J. Mod. Phys. 2016, 5(2-1), 37-45. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.2016050201.13

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    AMA Style

    Chandrakant S. Burande. Santilli Synthesis of the Neutron According to Hadronic Mechanics. Am J Mod Phys. 2016;5(2-1):37-45. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.2016050201.13

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajmp.2016050201.13,
      author = {Chandrakant S. Burande},
      title = {Santilli Synthesis of the Neutron According to Hadronic Mechanics},
      journal = {American Journal of Modern Physics},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2-1},
      pages = {37-45},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajmp.2016050201.13},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.2016050201.13},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.2016050201.13},
      abstract = {In 1920 H. Rutherford conjectured that neutron is a compressed hydrogen atom in the core of the stars. W. Pauli noted that such synthesis of neutron violates the conservation of the angular momentum. Therefore, E. Fermi proposed emission of massless particle, called "neutrino". However, R.M. Santilli more recently noted that, even though the angular angular momentum would be conserved, the neutrino hypothesis does not allow non-relativistic quantum mechanics to be valid because the rest energy of the neutron is bigger than the sum of the rest energies of the proton and electron, under these conditions Schrodinger equation becomes inconsistent. Similarly, Santilli showed that relativistic quantum mechanics is also inapplicable (rather than violated) because, even though exactly valid for the electron at large distance from the proton in the hydrogen atom, the celebrated Dirac's equation is clearly inapplicable for the representation of electron when immersed inside the proton. In this paper, we study Santilli's decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental research, first for the construction of the covering hadronic mechanics, and then the resulting numerically exact and time invariant representation at the non-relativistic and relativistic levels of "all" chararcteristics of the neutron in its synthesis from a proton and an electron. In particular, we show that, within said covering context, the representation of proton as an extended particle implies the existence of an orbital angular momentum of the electron within the hyperdense proton which is totally non-existence for quantum mechanics, under which the total angular momentum is conserved without any need for the conjectural neutrino. We finally study Santilli's suggestive hypothesis of the "etherino" as a longitudinal impulse (rather than particle) from the ether as a universal substratum that delivers missing energy for the synthesis of the neutron.},
     year = {2016}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
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    AU  - Chandrakant S. Burande
    Y1  - 2016/05/18
    PY  - 2016
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    AB  - In 1920 H. Rutherford conjectured that neutron is a compressed hydrogen atom in the core of the stars. W. Pauli noted that such synthesis of neutron violates the conservation of the angular momentum. Therefore, E. Fermi proposed emission of massless particle, called "neutrino". However, R.M. Santilli more recently noted that, even though the angular angular momentum would be conserved, the neutrino hypothesis does not allow non-relativistic quantum mechanics to be valid because the rest energy of the neutron is bigger than the sum of the rest energies of the proton and electron, under these conditions Schrodinger equation becomes inconsistent. Similarly, Santilli showed that relativistic quantum mechanics is also inapplicable (rather than violated) because, even though exactly valid for the electron at large distance from the proton in the hydrogen atom, the celebrated Dirac's equation is clearly inapplicable for the representation of electron when immersed inside the proton. In this paper, we study Santilli's decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental research, first for the construction of the covering hadronic mechanics, and then the resulting numerically exact and time invariant representation at the non-relativistic and relativistic levels of "all" chararcteristics of the neutron in its synthesis from a proton and an electron. In particular, we show that, within said covering context, the representation of proton as an extended particle implies the existence of an orbital angular momentum of the electron within the hyperdense proton which is totally non-existence for quantum mechanics, under which the total angular momentum is conserved without any need for the conjectural neutrino. We finally study Santilli's suggestive hypothesis of the "etherino" as a longitudinal impulse (rather than particle) from the ether as a universal substratum that delivers missing energy for the synthesis of the neutron.
    VL  - 5
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Author Information
  • Vilasrao Deshmukh College Engineering and Technology, Mouda, Dist. Nagpur, India

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