A number of methods have been employed by cosmologists to effect what they call an ‘extension’ of their ‘Schwarzschild solution’, to remove the singularity at their ‘Schwarzschild radius’ rs = 2Gm/c^2; the latter they maintain is the radius of the ‘event horizon’ of a black hole. They call the singularity at the Schwarzschild radius a coordinate singularity. The method of extension most often employed by cosmologists is the Kruskal-Szekeres extension, but sometimes the Painlevé-Gullstrand extension is used. The quantity r appearing in all these metrics is invariably treated by cosmologists as the radial distance, most evident in their ‘Schwarzschild radius’. Intuitively, radial distance is ≥ 0 and so, on their false assumption that r is the radial distance in the ‘Schwarzschild solution’, the cosmologists seek to drive it down to zero where they say there is a physical singularity. Although cosmologists have devised mathematical-like methods to seemingly do this, to produce their black hole, all their methods violate the rules of pure mathematics and so they are inadmissible. Consequently, the Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘extension’ is invalid. Moreover, since material sources cannot be both present in and absent from Einstein’s field equations by the very same mathematical constraint, the whole theory of black holes is fallacious.
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American Journal of Modern Physics (Volume 5, Issue 1-1)
This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics Without Higgs and Without Supersymmetry |
DOI | 10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15 |
Page(s) | 33-39 |
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General Relativity, Black Hole, Metric Extensions, Ricci Tensor, Escape Velocity
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APA Style
Stephen J. Crothers. (2015). The Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘Extension’ - A Black Hole Fallacy. American Journal of Modern Physics, 5(1-1), 33-39. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15
ACS Style
Stephen J. Crothers. The Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘Extension’ - A Black Hole Fallacy. Am. J. Mod. Phys. 2015, 5(1-1), 33-39. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15
@article{10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15, author = {Stephen J. Crothers}, title = {The Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘Extension’ - A Black Hole Fallacy}, journal = {American Journal of Modern Physics}, volume = {5}, number = {1-1}, pages = {33-39}, doi = {10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15}, url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15}, eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15}, abstract = {A number of methods have been employed by cosmologists to effect what they call an ‘extension’ of their ‘Schwarzschild solution’, to remove the singularity at their ‘Schwarzschild radius’ rs = 2Gm/c^2; the latter they maintain is the radius of the ‘event horizon’ of a black hole. They call the singularity at the Schwarzschild radius a coordinate singularity. The method of extension most often employed by cosmologists is the Kruskal-Szekeres extension, but sometimes the Painlevé-Gullstrand extension is used. The quantity r appearing in all these metrics is invariably treated by cosmologists as the radial distance, most evident in their ‘Schwarzschild radius’. Intuitively, radial distance is ≥ 0 and so, on their false assumption that r is the radial distance in the ‘Schwarzschild solution’, the cosmologists seek to drive it down to zero where they say there is a physical singularity. Although cosmologists have devised mathematical-like methods to seemingly do this, to produce their black hole, all their methods violate the rules of pure mathematics and so they are inadmissible. Consequently, the Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘extension’ is invalid. Moreover, since material sources cannot be both present in and absent from Einstein’s field equations by the very same mathematical constraint, the whole theory of black holes is fallacious.}, year = {2015} }
TY - JOUR T1 - The Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘Extension’ - A Black Hole Fallacy AU - Stephen J. Crothers Y1 - 2015/10/20 PY - 2015 N1 - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15 DO - 10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15 T2 - American Journal of Modern Physics JF - American Journal of Modern Physics JO - American Journal of Modern Physics SP - 33 EP - 39 PB - Science Publishing Group SN - 2326-8891 UR - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.15 AB - A number of methods have been employed by cosmologists to effect what they call an ‘extension’ of their ‘Schwarzschild solution’, to remove the singularity at their ‘Schwarzschild radius’ rs = 2Gm/c^2; the latter they maintain is the radius of the ‘event horizon’ of a black hole. They call the singularity at the Schwarzschild radius a coordinate singularity. The method of extension most often employed by cosmologists is the Kruskal-Szekeres extension, but sometimes the Painlevé-Gullstrand extension is used. The quantity r appearing in all these metrics is invariably treated by cosmologists as the radial distance, most evident in their ‘Schwarzschild radius’. Intuitively, radial distance is ≥ 0 and so, on their false assumption that r is the radial distance in the ‘Schwarzschild solution’, the cosmologists seek to drive it down to zero where they say there is a physical singularity. Although cosmologists have devised mathematical-like methods to seemingly do this, to produce their black hole, all their methods violate the rules of pure mathematics and so they are inadmissible. Consequently, the Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘extension’ is invalid. Moreover, since material sources cannot be both present in and absent from Einstein’s field equations by the very same mathematical constraint, the whole theory of black holes is fallacious. VL - 5 IS - 1-1 ER -